JMdictDB - Japanese Dictionary Database

Entries

Search | Advanced Search | New Entry | Submissions | Help
Login for registered editors
Username:
Password:
jmdict 1213870 Active (id: 2277150)
看護婦 [ichi1,news1,nf04]
かんごふ [ichi1,news1,nf04]
1. [n]
《now deprecated》
▶ (female) nurse
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1928100 看護師 1. (hospital) nurse; registered nurse; RN



History:
9. A 2023-09-16 01:40:40  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I don't think it's colloquial.
  Diff:
@@ -19 +18,0 @@
-<misc>&col;</misc>
8. A* 2023-09-09 11:43:06 
  Comments:
Not really sens.
  Diff:
@@ -19 +19 @@
-<misc>&sens;</misc>
+<misc>&col;</misc>
7. A* 2023-09-09 11:19:20 
  Refs:
Daijisen
  Comments:
I think it's similar to "mental hospital" vs "psychiatric hospital"
"mental hospital" is perhaps an outdated term, hospitals will not put that in their full official name anymore, but it is in the vernacular and people use the former term and will keep using the former term for a long time. even if the term is avoided in official contexts.

or perhaps a more apt comparison is "fireman" vs "firefighter" ?

I expect people will be using 看護婦 for many more decades to refer to nurses.
  Diff:
@@ -21 +21 @@
-<gloss>(hospital) nurse</gloss>
+<gloss>(female) nurse</gloss>
6. A 2023-09-09 06:04:59  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5: a (hospital) nurse. ▲現在は「看護師」と呼称.
All the JEs point to 看護師 as the current term
  Comments:
I'm adding a temporary "deprecated" note. I've proposed a misc. tag for it.
  Diff:
@@ -20 +20,2 @@
-<gloss>(female) nurse</gloss>
+<s_inf>now deprecated</s_inf>
+<gloss>(hospital) nurse</gloss>
5. A* 2023-09-09 05:13:31  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
看護婦の呼び方はいつから変わった? 「看護師」と「看護士」正しいのはどっち?
https://kango.mynavi.jp/contents/nurseplus/workstyle/20211012-2138748/
しかし、2001年の法改正で「保健婦助産婦看護婦法」から「保健師助産師看護師法」に名称が変更されたことにより、翌年2002年に性別による読み方の区別が撤廃され、男女ともに「看護師」と統一されるようになりました

「看護師」という表記が基本となってから約20年経過した現在も、未だに「看護婦さん」と呼ぶ人がいたり、ネット上で「看護婦」「看護士」と称されていたりすることがあります。しかし、医療業界では「看護婦」「看護士」という表記が使用されることはほぼありません。
  Comments:
You might consider administratively removing [news1], though if [ichi1] stays, this word will remain "common" (on sites like jisho.org). 

I think "deprecated" was a good description.  In any case, I think *something* should be said, and [sens] might be correct. It's about respect for the profession and for Japanese workers. My Japanese textbook was published in 1987 and used this term.  By 2015, my late-30s native Japanese (female) teacher corrected the class, and told us to use 看護師 instead.  The ref'd article suggests the legal designation stopped using this term in 2001.

看護師 is used in all professional contexts.  It was how I was told to address the nurses at my vet. I've said 看護婦 on accident when reaching for a word, and it was actually a little bit embarrassing.

Right now this word shows up as "common" due to statistics, and is an analog for a common English word still-in-use.  I think this merits some kind of warning. Old Japanese people may still say 看護婦 out of habit, but It seems that foreigners should prefer 看護師 in almost all cases.

As mentioned, the [news1] stat itself is obsolete.  If mainichi shimbun vocab were collected today, 看護婦 would certainly not make the cut.  

Here's a government publication with a list of potentially discriminatory words.  This one is on the list:
https://www.city.takarazuka.hyogo.jp/_res/projects/default_project/_page_/001/021/755/sassi19.pdf

(granted, it's swept up some still-fairly-common gendered vocabulary)
  Diff:
@@ -18,0 +19 @@
+<misc>&sens;</misc>
(show/hide 4 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1227320 Active (id: 2276591)
丘陵 [news1,nf14]
きゅうりょう [news1,nf14]
1. [n]
▶ hill
▶ hillock
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2567510 陵丘【りょうきゅう】 1. hill
2. [n]
▶ rolling hills
▶ foothills



History:
2. A 2023-09-09 01:29:10  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5, 中辞典, etc. Koj, Daijr/s
  Comments:
Better as two senses, as in the kokugos.
  Diff:
@@ -16 +16,5 @@
-<gloss>hills</gloss>
+<gloss>hill</gloss>
+<gloss>hillock</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
1. A* 2023-09-09 01:02:23  Anonymous
  Refs:
新明解国語辞典 第五版:
平地の周縁や山地の入口に位置し、似たような起伏が帯状に続いた、やや高い土地。

goo:
1 小さな山。おか。
2 ゆるやかな起伏の低い山が続く地形。「―地帯」
  Comments:
goo [2] is very close to "rolling hills".
新明解 mentions "山地の入口に位置し", i.e. foothills.
These two terms will give learners a better image of the type of terrain the word refers to. 
"Hills" might should be pluralized as the word doesn't seem to refer to one single solitary hill in a vacuum (say, in the middle of a flat plain).
  Diff:
@@ -16 +16,3 @@
-<gloss>hill</gloss>
+<gloss>hills</gloss>
+<gloss>rolling hills</gloss>
+<gloss>foothills</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1253850 Active (id: 2276636)
傑士
けっし
1. [n] [rare]
▶ great man
▶ hero
▶ outstanding person
▶ distinguished person



History:
3. A 2023-09-09 15:00:54  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -14,0 +15,2 @@
+<gloss>outstanding person</gloss>
+<gloss>distinguished person</gloss>
2. A 2023-09-09 02:43:18  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5: 	a hero; a great man; a master spirit.
  Comments:
Not really fussed, but I don't think the order needed changing.
1. A* 2023-09-09 02:09:00  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
"heros" with 傑  (none of these actually mean  ヒーロー・英雄)
豪傑	65836	51.6%  hero; great man
英傑	51297	40.2%  great person; hero; mastermind; extraordinary person
英雄豪傑	4830	3.8%   hero; warrior of matchless valor; heroic character
俊傑	4152	3.3%   hero; genius
傑人	2511		outstanding person
人傑	1153	0.9%   great person; outstanding talent; hero
傑士	288	0.2% <--- this one

https://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/thsrs/4708/meaning/m0u/#:~:text=なみはずれてすぐれた人物。
傑物/傑士/傑人/人傑/英傑/俊傑 の共通する意味
なみはずれてすぐれた人物。
英語表現 a great man
国語辞書で調べる 傑物 傑士 傑人 人傑 英傑 俊傑
  Comments:
There's an interesting assertion here that 傑士/傑人/人傑/英傑/俊傑 are all mostly interchangeable (and all [form], though 傑士 is [rare] even among them).
https://dictionary.goo.ne.jp/thsrs/4704/meaning/m0u/
傑物/傑士/傑人/人傑/英傑/俊傑 の使い分け
1「傑物」以外は文章語で、意味に大差はない。
2「傑物」は、一般の人の基準では推し量れない型破りの人物に対する驚嘆の念を伴っていうこともある。

Looking at reverso, the most-likely-to-be-glossed as "hero" among all of these is 英傑, and we've already made "hero" the second gloss there:
英傑: great person; hero; mastermind; extraordinary person

So, minimally, I think moving "hero" to the second position here is reasonable. It seems like "hero" only applies here in the limited sense that it is a synonym for "a great man". I don't think it would be a loss to drop "hero" entirely on this term, and a number of the related terms(傑人, 人傑, probably 俊傑 ), as it seems more misleading than whatever value it contributes as a potential gloss.
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12,2 @@
+<misc>&rare;</misc>
+<gloss>great man</gloss>
@@ -13 +14,0 @@
-<gloss>great man</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1253870 Active (id: 2276649)
傑人
けつじん
1. [n] [form]
▶ outstanding person
▶ distinguished person
▶ person of high caliber



History:
2. A 2023-09-09 21:13:21  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-09-09 14:55:38  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
meikyo, daij
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12 @@
+<misc>&form;</misc>
@@ -12,0 +14,2 @@
+<gloss>distinguished person</gloss>
+<gloss>person of high caliber</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1279060 Active (id: 2276657)
控える [ichi1,news1,nf06] 扣える [rK]
ひかえる [ichi1,news1,nf06]
1. [v1,vt]
▶ to be temperate in
▶ to refrain
▶ to abstain
▶ to hold back
▶ to restrain oneself from excessive ...
2. [v1,vt]
▶ to make notes
▶ to jot down (e.g. phone number)
3. [v1,vi]
▶ to be in preparation for
▶ to be in waiting for
4. [v1,vi]
▶ to be soon
▶ to be in the offing
5. [v1,vt]
▶ to be in a close relationship (e.g. as a backer, etc.)

Conjugations


History:
8. A 2023-09-09 22:21:41  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Fixed. (Missed this week's update cycle.)
7. A* 2023-09-09 08:03:03  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
The sentence currently on sense [4] should be on sense[3].

彼女は入試を控えて神経質になっていた。
She was nervous before the entrance exam.
6. A 2022-07-25 23:14:31  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
5. A* 2022-07-25 19:54:19  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーー─┬─────────┬───────╮
│ 控える  │ 566,954 │ 96.7% │
│ 扣える  │       0 │  0.0% │ 🡠 rK (daijr/s, koj, shinmeikai)
│ ひかえる │  19,047 │  3.3% │
╰─ーーーー─┴─────────┴───────╯
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12 @@
+<ke_inf>&rK;</ke_inf>
4. A 2014-01-31 09:27:06  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
(show/hide 3 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1441840 Active (id: 2276646)
伝い [news2,nf40]
づたい [news2,nf40]
1. [suf]
《after a noun; oft. 〜に》
▶ along (a wall, river, railroad tracks, etc.)
▶ alongside
▶ following
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1441850 伝う 1. to go along; to walk along; to follow



History:
7. A 2023-09-09 21:06:30  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
6. A* 2023-09-09 18:52:33  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5, daij
  Comments:
〘接尾〙in koj and smk.
For "along the coast", 沿い is much more common.
freq tags were accidentally dropped in 2017. Adding them back in.
  Diff:
@@ -5,0 +6,2 @@
+<ke_pri>news2</ke_pri>
+<ke_pri>nf40</ke_pri>
@@ -8,0 +11,2 @@
+<re_pri>news2</re_pri>
+<re_pri>nf40</re_pri>
@@ -11 +15 @@
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
+<pos>&suf;</pos>
@@ -13,2 +17,2 @@
-<s_inf>often 伝いに</s_inf>
-<gloss>along (wall, coast, river, etc.)</gloss>
+<s_inf>after a noun; oft. 〜に</s_inf>
+<gloss>along (a wall, river, railroad tracks, etc.)</gloss>
5. A 2018-09-16 18:25:07  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I mistakenly added [adj-no] in my 2017 edit.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12 @@
-<pos>&adj-no;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1441850">伝う</xref>
4. A 2017-02-11 00:49:18  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
G n-grams:
伝い	143441
づたい	1286
伝いに	47616
づたいに	26023
  Comments:
The JE examples are all 伝いに.
  Diff:
@@ -12,0 +13 @@
+<s_inf>often 伝いに</s_inf>
3. A* 2017-02-05 22:48:39  Robin Scott
  Refs:
daijr, daijs
  Comments:
It makes more sense to me having it in this form.
  Diff:
@@ -5,3 +5 @@
-<keb>伝いに</keb>
-<ke_pri>news2</ke_pri>
-<ke_pri>nf40</ke_pri>
+<keb>伝い</keb>
@@ -10,3 +8 @@
-<reb>づたいに</reb>
-<re_pri>news2</re_pri>
-<re_pri>nf40</re_pri>
+<reb>づたい</reb>
@@ -16 +12 @@
-<pos>&adv;</pos>
+<pos>&adj-no;</pos>
@@ -17,0 +14 @@
+<gloss>alongside</gloss>
(show/hide 2 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1445640 Active (id: 2276606)
[ichi1,news1,nf20]
やつ [ichi1,news1,nf20] ヤツ (nokanji)
1. [n] [uk]
《derogatory or familiar》
▶ fellow
▶ guy
▶ chap
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2852740 香具師【やつ】 1. fellow; guy; chap; he; she; him; her
2. [n] [col,uk]
▶ thing
▶ object
3. [pn]
《derogatory or familiar》
▶ he
▶ she
▶ him
▶ her



History:
10. A 2023-09-09 05:48:27  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
9. A* 2023-09-09 05:21:57  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -17,0 +18 @@
+<re_nokanji/>
8. A* 2023-09-09 04:41:42  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
やつは	1595354
ヤツは	648303

やつら	925991
ヤツら	185473
  Comments:
Was reading as government publication on discriminatory vocabulary that wrote it this way. Was surprised a search for "ヤツ" didn't return anything.
  Diff:
@@ -14,0 +15,3 @@
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
+<reb>ヤツ</reb>
7. A 2021-12-24 08:08:39  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
It's one or the other, and having both tags would be a bit odd.
6. A* 2021-12-08 01:58:46  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
isn't tagging these senses [derog][fam] preferable to a note reading "derogatory or familiar"?
(and in line with what we usually do?)
(show/hide 5 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1497600 Active (id: 2276609)
浮浪者 [ichi1,news2,nf39]
ふろうしゃ [ichi1,news2,nf39]
1. [n]
《now deprecated》
▶ vagrant
▶ vagabond
▶ tramp
▶ homeless person
▶ hobo
▶ bum
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 2105700 ホームレス 2. homeless person
  ⇐ see: 2519070 浮浪人【ふろうにん】 1. vagrant



History:
3. A 2023-09-09 06:13:58  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5: a vagabond; a gentleman of the road; a homeless person; a vagrant; a tramp; a bum; 《米》a hobo; a jobless, homeless person. 
(Other JEs similar),
  Comments:
It's just one sense. Also, a [sens] tag has to refer to the Japanese term; not one English sense.
  Diff:
@@ -19 +19 @@
-<misc>&dated;</misc>
+<s_inf>now deprecated</s_inf>
@@ -21,0 +22 @@
+<gloss>tramp</gloss>
@@ -23,4 +23,0 @@
-</sense>
-<sense>
-<pos>&n;</pos>
-<misc>&sens;</misc>
@@ -29 +25,0 @@
-<gloss>tramp</gloss>
2. A* 2023-09-09 05:39:30  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
ホームレス	674228	86.9%
浮浪者	101216	13.1%

Disfavored due to discrimination:
浮浪者とホームレスの意味は何の違いますか?
https://ja.hinative.com/questions/6516070
同じですが浮浪者は差別用語的なのでホームレスという言葉が使われるようになったのだと思います。

Disfavored due to discrimination:
https://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q1475811244
同じ意味です。
昔は浮浪者って言っていたのですよ。「浮浪者」という言葉が差別的であるとして放送禁止用語とされたことにより、「ホームレス」という単語で呼び替えられることが多くなったんです。

Disfavored due to discrimination:
https://two-differences.com/homuresu/
今はあまり「乞食」や「浮浪者」という言葉は使われなくなり、家を失い路上生活などをしている人のことをまとめて「ホームレス」と呼ぶことが多くなりました。

Steam浮浪者生活シム『Bum Simulator』
https://automaton-media.com/articles/newsjp/20230513-247298/

hobo, drifter, homeless guy, vagrant, homeless,
https://context.reverso.net/translation/japanese-english/浮浪者

https://www.wordreference.com/jaen/浮浪者
Listed as an option under:
bum, dosser, drifter, hobo, outcast, tramp

Same resource from 看護師, discriminatory words-to-avoid
https://www.city.takarazuka.hyogo.jp/_res/projects/default_project/_page_/001/021/755/sassi19.pdf
● 職業に関する用語 屠殺場・バタ屋・人夫・土方・小使・女中・女工・浮浪者・賤民・ボロ屋・保母・看護婦
 くずや・養老院・スチュワ-デス・チェアマン・オンブズマン

https://ejje.weblio.jp/content/bum
研究社 新英和中辞典での「bum」の意味
bum1
1a可算名詞 浮浪者,ルンペン; 怠け者,ぐうたら.

日本語WordNet(英和)での「bum」の意味
働かない人
(person who does no work)
a lazy bum 怠惰な浮浪者

https://dictionary.cambridge.org/ja/dictionary/japanese-english/浮浪者
浮浪者 noun (ふろうしゃ)
一定の住居や職業を持たずに方々をうろつく人
homeless person
hobo [noun] (American) a tramp
vagrant [noun] a person who has no fixed home; a tramp.
  Comments:
Looks like a word that is becoming/has become disfavored over time.  This term is currently [news2], but I doubt it would be if stats were collected today.

This term is *mentioned* in sankoku under 浮浪 in this way:
【[ー者]今は「ホームレス」】
it does not get its own entry.

I won't be surprised if my edit is squished back into one sense, but mixing the glosses together gives no guidance for non-English-natives. If you are reading old texts, even government publications used 浮浪者 in designating homeless people. This use is [dated]. Use ホームレス instead.  But 浮浪者 is obviously still quite common.

Google for: site:mainichi.jp "浮浪者" , 20 results returned, generally of a historical nature
Google for: site:mainichi.jp "ホームレス" , endless stream of results

One of the uses of 浮浪者 in mainichi.jp, for example, was discussing the two "vagrants" from "Waiting for Godot". 

Like 看護婦, "deprecated" is maybe the right idea.  You'll obviously see this term all over the place even today (especially since the homeless command no degree of respect, unlike nurses).  But foreigners should probably be advised to avoid it and use ホームレス instead.
  Diff:
@@ -17,0 +18,2 @@
+<xref type="see" seq="2105700">ホームレス・2</xref>
+<misc>&dated;</misc>
@@ -19,0 +22,7 @@
+<gloss>homeless person</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<misc>&sens;</misc>
+<gloss>hobo</gloss>
+<gloss>bum</gloss>
1. A 2017-09-10 16:46:35  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5, prog
  Diff:
@@ -18,0 +19,2 @@
+<gloss>vagabond</gloss>
+<gloss>tramp</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1610080 Active (id: 2276648)
沿い [ichi1,news1,nf07] 添い [rK]
ぞい [ichi1,news1,nf07]
1. [suf]
《after a noun; usu. 〜に》
▶ along (a river, coast, railway, etc.)
▶ on (e.g. a street)



History:
2. A 2023-09-09 21:12:57  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-09-09 19:00:42  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daij, smk, prog, luminous
川沿い	645,311	99.6%	
川添い	2,688	0.4%	
海岸沿い	216,491	99.8%	
海岸添い	389	0.2%
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9,4 @@
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>添い</keb>
+<ke_inf>&rK;</ke_inf>
@@ -18 +22,3 @@
-<gloss>along</gloss>
+<s_inf>after a noun; usu. 〜に</s_inf>
+<gloss>along (a river, coast, railway, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>on (e.g. a street)</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1624980 Active (id: 2276640)
風浪
ふうろう
1. [n] [form]
▶ wind and waves
▶ rough seas
2. [n]
▶ wind wave



History:
2. A 2023-09-09 18:33:17  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I don't think the x-ref is needed.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +11,0 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1624620">風波・1</xref>
1. A* 2023-09-09 08:23:36  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
sanoku:[文]風波

風波	34316	79.4%
風浪	8896	20.6%

https://kotobank.jp/word/風浪-123037
風浪
ふうろう
wind wave

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wind_wave

https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/波
。風によって起きる波を風浪(ふうろう)と呼ぶ
風浪
その場で吹いている風によって引き起こされた波は風浪あるいは風波(ふうは、(かざなみ)と呼ばれる

daijs:
1 風と波。
2 水面を吹く風によって起こる波。さざ波・三角波など。風波。

https://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=風浪
風浪
wave
wind wave《気象》
  Comments:
"In fluid dynamics, a wind wave, or wind-generated water wave, is a surface wave that occurs on the free surface of bodies of water as a result of the wind blowing over the water's surface."

[2] is a wave that is developed by the wind. Distinct from [1].  風波 may also merit this gloss, but 風浪 seems to be the more common term for "wind wave". 

also, pluralized "waves", follows the xref.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12,3 @@
-<gloss>wind and wave</gloss>
+<xref type="see" seq="1624620">風波・1</xref>
+<misc>&form;</misc>
+<gloss>wind and waves</gloss>
@@ -14,0 +17,4 @@
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<gloss>wind wave</gloss>
+</sense>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1663520 Active (id: 2276647)
女丈夫
じょじょうふじょじょうぶ
1. [n]
▶ heroine
▶ brave woman
▶ spirited woman
▶ woman of strong character
▶ Amazon



History:
2. A 2023-09-09 21:11:44  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-09-09 14:44:15  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5, daij
  Diff:
@@ -14,0 +15 @@
+<gloss>heroine</gloss>
@@ -15,0 +17,3 @@
+<gloss>spirited woman</gloss>
+<gloss>woman of strong character</gloss>
+<gloss>Amazon</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1689820 Active (id: 2276642)
飛び石伝い飛石伝い [sK]
とびいしづたい
1. [n]
《usu. adverbially as 〜に》
▶ walking over stepping stones
▶ following the stepping stones



History:
3. A 2023-09-09 18:41:10  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5, daijr/s
飛び石伝い	1,552
飛び石伝いに	1,306
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
@@ -15 +16,3 @@
-<gloss>crossing via stepping stones</gloss>
+<s_inf>usu. adverbially as 〜に</s_inf>
+<gloss>walking over stepping stones</gloss>
+<gloss>following the stepping stones</gloss>
2. A* 2023-09-09 17:01:43  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーーー─┬───────┬───────╮
│ 飛び石伝い │ 1,552 │ 92.2% │
│ 飛石伝い  │   131 │  7.8% │
╰─ーーーーー─┴───────┴───────╯
  Diff:
@@ -5,0 +6,3 @@
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>飛石伝い</keb>
1. A* 2023-09-09 11:57:52 
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12 @@
-<gloss>crossing via stepping-stones</gloss>
+<gloss>crossing via stepping stones</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1855740 Active (id: 2276598)
道を聞く道を訊く道をきく [sK]
みちをきく
1. [exp,v5k]
▶ to ask for directions
▶ to ask the way

Conjugations


History:
3. A 2023-09-09 02:43:57  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2023-09-09 02:34:39  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
〈道/みち〉を〈聞/訊/聴/き〉い

Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーーー─┬────────┬───────╮
│ 道を聞い  │ 29,308 │ 92.8% │ - moving up
│ 道を訊い  │    972 │  3.1% │
│ 道をきい  │    945 │  3.0% │ - add, sK
│ 道を聴い  │    194 │  0.6% │
│ みちを訊い │      0 │  0.0% │
│ みちを聞い │      0 │  0.0% │
│ みちを聴い │      0 │  0.0% │
│ みちをきい │    156 │  0.5% │
╰─ーーーーー─┴────────┴───────╯

English N-gram Counts
ask for directions  46,917
ask the way          3,959
  Diff:
@@ -3,0 +4,3 @@
+<k_ele>
+<keb>道を聞く</keb>
+</k_ele>
@@ -8 +11,2 @@
-<keb>道を聞く</keb>
+<keb>道をきく</keb>
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
@@ -15,0 +20 @@
+<gloss>to ask for directions</gloss>
1. A 2010-09-13 04:46:12  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Added additional PoS via batch update.Added additional PoS via batch update.
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -15,0 +15,1 @@
+<pos>&v5k;</pos>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1861380 Deleted (id: 2276748)
謁を賜る謁を賜わる
えつをたまわる
1. [exp,v5r]
▶ to be granted an audience

Conjugations


History:
4. D 2023-09-11 04:02:05  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I agree. 拝謁を賜る could be added, but it's rather obvious.
3. A* 2023-09-10 13:53:57  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I don't think this is needed. Rare and the meaning is obvious.
2. A* 2023-09-09 10:36:12  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://reibuncnt.jp/26944

https://sakura-paris.org/dict/学研国語大辞典/content/881_1718
えつをたまわる【謁を賜る】

謁を賜る	0	0.0%
謁を賜わる	0	0.0%
拝謁を賜る	750	87.9%
拝謁を賜わる	0	0.0%
謁見を賜る	103	12.1%
謁見を賜わる	0	0.0%
  Comments:
Our bare entry for 賜る also prefers the orthography without わ。 Both show up in books, and it's not actually a huge gap there.

謁見を賜る and 拝謁を賜る are both far more common, but it's nice to see the verb in any case.
  Diff:
@@ -3,0 +4,3 @@
+<k_ele>
+<keb>謁を賜る</keb>
+</k_ele>
1. A 2010-11-15 11:18:43  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Added additional PoS via batch update.Added additional PoS via batch update.
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -12,0 +12,1 @@
+<pos>&v5r;</pos>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1913290 Active (id: 2276607)
奴ら [spec1] 奴等やつ等 [sK] ヤツ等 [sK]
やつら [spec1] ヤツら [sk]
1. [pn] [derog,fam]
▶ they
▶ those guys
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2448910 奴原【やつばら】 1. they; those guys



History:
13. A 2023-09-09 05:51:13  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
ヤツ等  9703
  Diff:
@@ -12,0 +13,4 @@
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>ヤツ等</keb>
12. A* 2023-09-09 05:19:04  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーー─┬───────────┬───────╮
│ 奴ら  │ 1,248,442 │ 47.0% │
│ 奴等  │   280,930 │ 10.6% │
│ やつ等 │    14,876 │  0.6% │ - sK
│ やつら │   925,991 │ 34.9% │
│ ヤツら │   185,473 │  7.0% │ - sk
╰─ーーー─┴───────────┴───────╯
  Diff:
@@ -12,0 +13 @@
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
@@ -19,0 +21 @@
+<re_inf>&sk;</re_inf>
11. A* 2023-09-09 04:42:16  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
やつら	925991
ヤツら	185473
  Diff:
@@ -16,0 +17,3 @@
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
+<reb>ヤツら</reb>
10. A 2021-12-08 20:34:02  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
9. A* 2021-12-08 01:58:57  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
mk 複数の人を卑しめていう語。
  Diff:
@@ -19,0 +20,2 @@
+<misc>&derog;</misc>
+<misc>&fam;</misc>
(show/hide 8 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1984890 Active (id: 2276803)

ピックアップピック・アップ
1. [n,vs,vt] Source lang: eng "pick up"
▶ picking out
▶ choosing
▶ selection
2. [n,vs,vt]
▶ picking (someone) up (in a vehicle)
3. [n]
▶ pickup (in a record player)
▶ (phono) cartridge
4. [n]
▶ pickup (truck)
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 2818610 小型トラック 1. small truck; pickup truck; pickup; van
5. [n] {physics}
▶ pickup (reaction)

Conjugations


History:
10. A 2023-09-12 11:32:29  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
OK
9. A* 2023-09-12 06:34:50  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I think that from a data perspective there should be an lsrc if the first gloss doesn't correspond to the Japanese word
  Diff:
@@ -13,0 +14 @@
+<lsource xml:lang="eng">pick up</lsource>
8. A 2023-09-12 01:20:18  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
7. A* 2023-09-12 01:05:59  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5, prog
daijs:「送迎バスで園児を―する」
wisdom: あした10時にピックアップしてくれますか  Pick me up at 10 tomorrow, will you?
  Comments:
Added sense.
I don't think we need to tag this as wasei.
  Diff:
@@ -14,2 +14,2 @@
-<lsource ls_wasei="y">pick up</lsource>
-<gloss>choice</gloss>
+<gloss>picking out</gloss>
+<gloss>choosing</gloss>
@@ -17 +16,0 @@
-<gloss>picking out (from a larger list)</gloss>
@@ -21,2 +20,8 @@
-<gloss>pickup (phonograph)</gloss>
-<gloss>stylus bar</gloss>
+<pos>&vs;</pos>
+<pos>&vt;</pos>
+<gloss>picking (someone) up (in a vehicle)</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<gloss>pickup (in a record player)</gloss>
+<gloss>(phono) cartridge</gloss>
@@ -27,2 +32 @@
-<gloss>pickup truck</gloss>
-<gloss>pickup</gloss>
+<gloss>pickup (truck)</gloss>
6. A 2023-09-09 01:53:38  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I suspect there:ll be no response. Closing.
(show/hide 5 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2098410 Deleted (id: 2276683)
別婚
べっこん
1. [n]
▶ separation with divorce in the offing



History:
3. D 2023-09-10 01:39:01  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Yes, the n-grams (26) and the few WWW hits seem to be false positives.
2. D* 2023-09-09 07:32:00  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Top 10 N-grams Lookup for 別婚 (Frequency Order)
別婚姻	271	  
別婚姻件数	214	  
別婚姻件数の	53	  

This is part of strings like ("number of marriages separated by..."):
年次別婚姻件数
都道府県別婚姻件数
  Comments:
Got here by chance searching "offing".  I had to look up "in the offing". I would rewrite with something more widely understood. "in anticipation of divorce", "with divorce likely".  *except*, I'm not sure this is a word at all.

Is there kokugo support?  This seems like a very specific gloss for a barely-existent term.

The way 別 gets next to 婚 is in strings like in the refs, and like:
シチュエーション別婚活方法
職業別婚活ガイド
年代別の婚活 / 年代別婚活
趣味別の婚活/ 趣味別婚活 ("searching for a marriage partner based on your hobbies", I think)

For example: 「趣味別婚活」の成功率が高い理由
https://www.itmedia.co.jp/makoto/articles/1402/04/news011_3.html

There is a book titled 別婚夫 on amazon, with the tagline:
結婚の持つ脆さ。愛を確信した女と男の信念の強さ。互いに外に愛人を持つ夫と妻。さまざまに揺れ動く男と女の心と性を精緻に描き、結婚は、夫婦の絆とは何かを探った小説。

That doesn't seem to confirm this gloss...

Otherwise, a search for usage is basically fruitless. 

別居, separate homes, is "separation", 別居婚 is "commuter marriage".  別婚 seems just as likely to be short for that as anything else.  I don't see how we would verify a meaning. 

At least two of the (few) google book results that seem to have 別婚 are actually misinterpreted instances of 別嬪(べっぴん).  I found one in a  reference book, and another in a novel here:
https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=4fBfAQAAQBAJ&pg=PT1285&lpg=PT1285&dq="別婚です""&source=bl&ots=PI5gpdtapJ&sig=ACfU3U36_9wUpO8tcRGiypICT5vO9hjXHQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjFppC6_5yBAxUrgVYBHRZzB7sQ6AF6BAgOEAM#v=onepage&q="別婚です""&f=false
1. A 2006-09-06 00:00:00 
  Comments:
Entry created

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2557070 Active (id: 2276656)
沖波沖浪
おきなみ
1. [n]
▶ offshore wave
▶ deep water wave



History:
3. A 2023-09-09 22:16:12  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2023-09-09 07:59:19  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Parallel translation:

設計沖波の見直しとその手法に関する福島県の事例について
Case Study of Fukushima with Regard to the Review of Design Offshore Waves and its Method 
http://www.jific.or.jp/dispatch/ronbun/pdf_r30/3005.pdf

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_destroyer_Okinami
Okinami (沖波, "High Seas Waves") was a Yūgumo-class destroyer of the Imperial Japanese Navy.

https://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=沖波
沖波
offshore wave
  Comments:
offing: "the part of the deep sea seen from the shore"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horizon
On Earth, when looking at a sea from a shore, the part of the sea closest to the horizon is called the offing.[1]

We already removed "offing" from 沖合, where it might have been appropriate(eijiro knows about it, but glosses extensively as "offshore").

I think we're better off without it here as well.

Technical texts in google book results that use "offing wave" seem to invariably have Japanese authors, suggesting that they might have relied on this vary gloss.  

The concept doesn't really make sense.  What is a wave "where the ocean meets the horizon". 

There is an English book called "Waves of the Sea and Other Water Waves", but the collocation is an accident:
"When, on the other hand, the wind is offshore, with a rough see in the offing, waves do not break until they come quite close to the beach."
  Diff:
@@ -15 +15 @@
-<gloss>offing wave</gloss>
+<gloss>offshore wave</gloss>
1. A 2010-07-12 06:34:11 
  Refs:
koj, daijr

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2771290 Active (id: 2276738)
円塚丸塚
まるづかまるか
1. [n] [rare]
▶ round burial mound
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1176170 円墳 1. round burial mound



History:
6. A 2023-09-11 02:17:10  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
5. A* 2023-09-11 01:32:17  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
えんちょう comes from the unabridged version of nikk. It's not in the other kokugos. I think we can drop it.
  Diff:
@@ -15,6 +14,0 @@
-<re_inf>&ok;</re_inf>
-</r_ele>
-<r_ele>
-<reb>えんちょう</reb>
-<re_restr>円塚</re_restr>
-<re_inf>&ok;</re_inf>
4. A 2023-09-10 01:41:05  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-09-09 09:51:46  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daijs
https://kotobank.jp/word/円塚-636271
まる‐づか【円塚/丸塚】
「円墳えんぷん」に同じ。

円墳	29766	87.7%
丸塚	4084	12.0%
円塚	106	0.3%
  Comments:
丸塚 is a place name which inflates the ngrams. Google image search for "丸塚"returns high school sports teams.
  Diff:
@@ -23,0 +24,2 @@
+<xref type="see" seq="1176170">円墳</xref>
+<misc>&rare;</misc>
2. A 2013-02-17 03:40:43  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
(show/hide 1 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2829836 Active (id: 2276702)
最高傑作
さいこうけっさく
1. [n]
▶ masterpiece
▶ masterwork
▶ crowning work
▶ one's magnum opus
▶ work of the highest quality
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2846254 最高作【さいこうさく】 1. magnum opus; (one's) best work



History:
7. A 2023-09-10 13:56:00  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I don't think the x-ref is helpful.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +11,0 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1253840">傑作・1</xref>
6. A 2023-09-09 06:41:04  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5: a work of the highest quality; a masterpiece; a masterwork; one's magnum opus.
  Comments:
Having a solitary plural gloss sitting in the middle of singular ones looks very odd, Anyway, I doubt it's actually needed; the other five are quite sufficient.
Also, we are fairly wary of quoting verbatim from Eijiro - see the Editorial Policy.
  Diff:
@@ -15 +14,0 @@
-<gloss>greatest works</gloss>
5. A* 2023-09-09 02:39:05  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I do see that we don't usually do (s).  This situation seems exceptional to me, I just don't know how to address it.

Suggestion #2: just make "greatest works" plural (also a deviation from our style, but it is sometimes done in mostly-plural cases).  Eijiro even does this:
https://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=最高傑作
crowning work
greatest works
magnum opus

The issue here remains that "highest", "crowning", "greatest", "magnum opus" all strongly imply that this is singular. (and masterpiece and masterwork, while not strictly defined as singular, are quite compatible with this interpretation).  最高 also seems like it could be "the absolute best". 

That makes the whole entry misleading. If you were seeing this in a J->E context, you could easily be lead to believe "there must be only one thing", when 最高傑作 does not have this limitation, and is quite often plural/uncountable.

I assumed it was the #1 best thing, until I went searching for examples and discovered it was not.  That's what I wanted to address for other dictionary users.
  Diff:
@@ -15 +15 @@
-<gloss>greatest work</gloss>
+<gloss>greatest works</gloss>
4. A 2023-09-05 10:04:15  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
We don't usually do "(s)" endings.
  Diff:
@@ -16 +16 @@
-<gloss>greatest work(s)</gloss>
+<gloss>greatest work</gloss>
3. A* 2023-09-05 07:22:44  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
One of...
傑作の一つ	14858
最高傑作の一つ	6851

https://tr-ex.me/翻訳/日本語-英語/傑作
最高傑作は
-masterpiece
the perfect album
the best works
finest work

https://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=最高傑作
greatest works
(among others)
  Comments:
Google returns some nice examples when simply searching
最高傑作 "greatest masterpieces"

I would personally do this:
(greatest) masterpiece(s)
But I feel like this will be too ugly to be accepted.

xref in an attempt to make it clear that you might be saying more than you mean to with "最高傑作". "傑作" is already legitimately "a masterpiece".  This entry is "among their greatest masterpieces", or something like that.

The selection of glosses here, along with 最高, give the strong impression that only one work applies.  But ngrams for "最高傑作の一つ" give away that this is not necessarily the case.  

In the structure "one of their "..., none if the existing glosses seemed to me to apply.  "One of their finest works" seems most natural to me, "one of their best/greatest works", one of their greatest masterpieces... 

"best" (or "greatest") seems more appropriate here than it did in "傑作"  If you search "傑作" and "best work", the results will tend toward "最高傑作". 

masterwork can legitimately go with 傑作 alone. That said, "masterpiece" seems like the most common gloss for 傑作 or for  最高傑作, so I've moved it up.
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12,3 @@
+<xref type="see" seq="1253840">傑作・1</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1253840">傑作・1</xref>
+<gloss>masterpiece</gloss>
@@ -13 +16 @@
-<gloss>masterpiece</gloss>
+<gloss>greatest work(s)</gloss>
(show/hide 2 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2835250 Active (id: 2276633)
墳塋
ふんえい
1. [n] [arch]
▶ grave
▶ tomb
▶ graveyard



History:
4. A 2023-09-09 14:33:48  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Appears to be archaic.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12 @@
-<misc>&rare;</misc>
+<misc>&arch;</misc>
3. A* 2023-09-09 09:42:18  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
墓	2889046	90.0%
墓所	147938	4.6%
墳塋	100	0.0%  <-------------

And some other 墳 terms for comparison
墳墓	69446	2.2%
墳丘	47649	1.5%
円墳	29766	0.9%
方墳	15100	0.5%
墳丘墓	10453	0.3%
上円下方墳	1195	0.0%
八角墳	820	0.0%
土墳	153	0.0% 

https://kotobank.jp/word/墳塋-377144
  Comments:
nikk definition is 墓・墓所.
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12 @@
+<misc>&rare;</misc>
2. A 2018-04-08 06:41:13  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2018-04-04 17:24:22  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daijr, koj

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2842349 Active (id: 2276860)
面謁
めんえつ
1. [n,vs,vi] [rare]
▶ audience with someone of high rank
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1472240 拝謁 1. audience with someone of high rank (e.g. the emperor)

Conjugations


History:
5. A 2023-09-13 18:32:08  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Aligning.
  Diff:
@@ -16 +16 @@
-<gloss>audience with a person of high rank</gloss>
+<gloss>audience with someone of high rank</gloss>
4. A 2023-09-10 01:43:24  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-09-09 10:11:49  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
拝謁	23443	98.5%
面謁	360	1.5%

https://kotobank.jp/word/面謁-644511#:~:text=めん‐えつ【面謁】,拝謁。
〘名〙 貴人に会うこと。お目にかかること。拝謁。おめみえ。

daijs:
[名](スル)貴人に会うこと。お目にかかること。拝謁。「国王に面謁する」
  Diff:
@@ -12,0 +13,3 @@
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1472240">拝謁</xref>
+<misc>&rare;</misc>
2. A 2019-12-10 06:43:55  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2019-12-10 06:38:20  Timofei Shatrov <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://www.weblio.jp/content/面謁

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2850880 Active (id: 2276685)
土墳
どふん
1. [n] [rare]
▶ burial mound
▶ tumulus



History:
5. A 2023-09-10 01:42:28  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I don't think that xref helps.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +11,0 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1433620">塚・2</xref>
4. A* 2023-09-09 10:01:59  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Various burial mounds:

古墳	1069967	91.3%
高塚	69585	5.9%
円墳	29766	2.5%
土饅頭	2862	0.2%
土墳	153	0.0% <---------- this one

daijs:
土を小高く盛り上げた墓。塚。
  Comments:
A kohun is a particular kind of ancient burial mound.  I don't think this has to be ancient.  The kokugos reference more generic terms instead (土饅頭, 塚)
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12,2 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1266100">古墳</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1433620">塚・2</xref>
+<misc>&rare;</misc>
3. A 2021-10-15 03:01:08  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
more commonly as xref
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12 @@
+<xref type="see" seq="1266100">古墳</xref>
2. A 2021-10-15 00:58:32  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
koj daijs nikk gakkoku too
  Diff:
@@ -12,0 +13 @@
+<gloss>tumulus</gloss>
1. A* 2021-10-14 14:59:16  Opencooper
  Refs:
daijr

土墳	153
  Comments:
Shinmeikai uses this in its entry for 「古墳」.

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2853155 Active (id: 2276599)
超加工食品
ちょうかこうしょくひん
1. [n] {food, cooking}
▶ ultra-processed food
▶ UPF



History:
3. A 2023-09-09 03:18:15  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -13,0 +14 @@
+<gloss>UPF</gloss>
2. A 2022-01-18 07:02:48  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2022-01-18 06:40:03  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://rnnnews.jp/search/result/?q=ultra-processed+food&m=3

https://www.asahi.com/sp/articles/SDI201907092404.html (2019/7)
「超加工食品」とはなにか がんや肥満とも関連?
https://wedge.ismedia.jp/articles/-/15924 (2019/4)
“危ない超加工食品”を鵜呑みにしてはいけない
https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/501204 (2 days ago)
安全な食品とそうでない食品を見分ける重要な鍵
あなたは「超加工食品」の存在を知っていますか

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2858662 Active (id: 2276751)
俺TUEEE
おれつえええ
1. [n] [net-sl]
▶ "Mary Sue" protagonist (inexplicably strong or capable character)
2. [n] [net-sl]
▶ overpowering weaker opponents for self-satisfaction (in a video game)



History:
15. A 2023-09-11 04:08:15  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Looks OK. The whole topic makes me feel tired.
14. A* 2023-09-10 02:14:25  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/俺TUEEE
  Comments:
I tried to come up with glosses for this a few days ago but I just felt lost. The explanations are all over the place.
I don't think "in a wish-fulfillment story" is necessarily true.
What's the source for "male"? Wiktionary has "Mary Sue (without a gender connotation)".
I'm not sure why sense 2 is adj-f. Niconicopedia defines it as a noun and Wiktionary glosses it as a noun.
  Diff:
@@ -5 +5 @@
-<keb>俺TUEEE</keb>
+<keb>俺TUEEE</keb>
@@ -12,3 +11,0 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="2837549">なろう系</xref>
-<xref type="see" seq="2837549">なろう系</xref>
-<xref type="see" seq="2837549">なろう系</xref>
@@ -16 +13 @@
-<gloss>male "Mary Sue" protagonist in a wish-fulfillment story</gloss>
+<gloss>"Mary Sue" protagonist (inexplicably strong or capable character)</gloss>
@@ -19 +16 @@
-<pos>&adj-f;</pos>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
@@ -21 +18 @@
-<gloss>overpowered (e.g. in a video game)</gloss>
+<gloss>overpowering weaker opponents for self-satisfaction (in a video game)</gloss>
13. A 2023-09-09 06:49:41  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I'm comfortable with sense 1. Not so sure about sense 2, but to be frank these slangy entries can be rather vague, and it's probably better to have something than nothing at all.
12. D* 2023-09-08 11:43:24 
  Comments:
Maybe this shouldn't be an entry if the editors aren't sure of the meaning.
11. A 2023-09-08 01:44:06  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
If the "overpowered" meaning is valid, I think it's another sense. I haven't dug into it very far - not my field.
(show/hide 10 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2858742 Active (id: 2276817)

ラーケーションラーケイション [sk]
1. [n] Source lang: eng(wasei) "lear(ning) (va)cation"
▶ optional day off school spent doing learning activities with a parent or guardian



History:
7. A 2023-09-12 22:22:08  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I can't see how it would be implied here. But I think I was wrong to assume that a single ラーケーション can consist of multiple days. It seems more likely that each day would be considered a separate ラーケーション.
  Diff:
@@ -14 +14 @@
-<gloss>optional day(s) off school spent doing learning activities with a parent or guardian</gloss>
+<gloss>optional day off school spent doing learning activities with a parent or guardian</gloss>
6. A* 2023-09-11 21:19:49 
  Comments:
I thought plural was implied and that the dictionary doesnt add (s) to nouns.
5. A 2023-09-11 02:21:31  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
OK
4. A* 2023-09-11 01:10:19  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://www3.nhk.or.jp/news/html/20230824/k10014170231000.html
1日ずつ取ることも3日連続で取ることも可能です
  Comments:
Not necessarily a single day.
ラーケイション gets very few hits.
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<re_inf>&sk;</re_inf>
@@ -12,2 +13,2 @@
-<lsource ls_wasei="y">lear(n)cation</lsource>
-<gloss>day off from school spent studying or learning with a parent or legal guardian</gloss>
+<lsource ls_wasei="y">lear(ning) (va)cation</lsource>
+<gloss>optional day(s) off school spent doing learning activities with a parent or guardian</gloss>
3. A* 2023-09-09 22:09:14 
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12 @@
-<lsource ls_wasei="y">learncation</lsource>
+<lsource ls_wasei="y">lear(n)cation</lsource>
(show/hide 2 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2858743 Active (id: 2276627)
看護短期大学
かんごたんきだいがく
1. [n]
▶ nursing college
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2858744 看護短大【かんごたんだい】 1. nursing college



History:
4. A 2023-09-09 10:56:32  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-09-09 07:38:31  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
看護短期大学	6902
  Comments:
This is not a specific place; it's a general term. A bit A+B but may be worth an entry.
  Diff:
@@ -1,3 +1,2 @@
-<ent_corp type="jmnedict">jmnedict</ent_corp>
-<ent_seq>5190330</ent_seq>
+<ent_corp type="jmdict">jmdict</ent_corp>
@@ -9 +7,0 @@
-<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>
@@ -12,2 +10,2 @@
-<misc>&organization;</misc>
-<gloss>Kango Junior College</gloss>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<gloss>nursing college</gloss>
2. A 2023-05-06 06:03:53  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Adding spec1
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>
1. A 2020-11-04 23:16:23  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Educ. inst. correction
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -11 +11 @@
-<misc>&place;</misc>
+<misc>&organization;</misc>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2858744 Active (id: 2276628)
看護短大
かんごたんだい
1. [n] [abbr]
▶ nursing college
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 2858743 看護短期大学 1. nursing college



History:
2. A 2023-09-09 10:56:47  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-09-09 07:40:44  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
看護短大	5717
  Comments:
Not a specific place. May be worth moving to JMdict.
  Diff:
@@ -1,3 +1,2 @@
-<ent_corp type="jmnedict">jmnedict</ent_corp>
-<ent_seq>5190331</ent_seq>
+<ent_corp type="jmdict">jmdict</ent_corp>
@@ -11,2 +10,4 @@
-<misc>&place;</misc>
-<gloss>Kangotandai</gloss>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="2858743">看護短期大学</xref>
+<misc>&abbr;</misc>
+<gloss>nursing college</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2858745 Deleted (id: 2276752)
曾参歌声
そうしんのかせい
1. [n] [yoji]
▶ living nobly without greed, even in a life of poverty



History:
6. D 2023-09-11 04:09:28  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I thought we were including them if they were in sites like yoji-jitenon. Not fussed as it very rare.
5. A* 2023-09-10 23:38:28  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I thought we agreed not to add any more rare yojijukugo that aren't in the major refs.
4. A* 2023-09-10 22:13:21  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Typo
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>living a nobly without greed, even in a life of poverty</gloss>
+<gloss>living nobly without greed, even in a life of poverty</gloss>
3. A 2023-09-10 21:51:10  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://yoji.jitenon.jp/yojid/1838.html
https://idiom-encyclopedia.com/soushinnnokasei/
  Comments:
Rare, but many yoji are.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12,2 @@
-<gloss>A parable of being noble and not bound by self-interest even though you are poor.</gloss>
+<misc>&yoji;</misc>
+<gloss>living a nobly without greed, even in a life of poverty</gloss>
2. A* 2023-09-10 11:48:12  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
G n-grams: No matches
  Comments:
Not in my refs. I don't think this is needed.
(show/hide 1 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2858746 Rejected (id: 2276671)
曾参歌声
そうしんのかせい
1. [n]
▶ A parable of being noble and not bound by self-interest even though you are poor.

History:
2. R 2023-09-10 00:02:55  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Duplicate
1. A* 2023-09-09 18:33:18  steve Smith <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
http://tuuhanichiban.so.land.to/3768.html among others.
  Comments:
Marked as 四字熟語 on page above.

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2858747 Active (id: 2276670)

ポゼッション
1. [n] {sports}
▶ possession (of the ball)



History:
2. A 2023-09-10 00:02:02  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-09-09 23:18:27  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daijr/s, KOD追加語彙

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2858748 Active (id: 2276676)
造波抵抗
ぞうはていこう
1. [n] {physics}
▶ wave-making resistance
2. [n] {aviation}
▶ wave drag



History:
2. A 2023-09-10 01:31:29  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-09-09 23:50:44  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5, chujiten, luminous, daij, koj

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5000016 Active (id: 2276668)
Eテレ
イーテレ [spec1]
1. [serv]
▶ NHK Educational TV



History:
3. A 2023-09-09 23:24:02  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2023-09-09 22:31:27 
  Diff:
@@ -12,2 +12,2 @@
-<misc>&product;</misc>
-<gloss>NHK educational portal</gloss>
+<misc>&serv;</misc>
+<gloss>NHK Educational TV</gloss>
1. A 2023-05-04 01:41:54  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Adding spec1
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5000042 Active (id: 2276681)
KDDI
ケーディーディーアイ [spec1]
1. [company]
▶ KDDI (telecommunications company)



History:
3. A 2023-09-10 01:33:43  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2023-09-09 22:33:52 
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>KDDI (Japanese telecommunications company)</gloss>
+<gloss>KDDI (telecommunications company)</gloss>
1. A 2023-05-08 23:46:10  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Adding spec1
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5000045 Active (id: 2276690)
KOPF
コップ [spec1]
1. [organization]
▶ Federacio de Proletaj Kultur-Organizoj Japanaj (1931-1934)
▶ Japanese Federation of Proletarian Culture Organizations
▶ KOPF



History:
8. A 2023-09-10 03:16:27  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I think アノニマスさん hadn't realized the role of the [spec1] tag here.
7. A* 2023-09-10 03:09:25  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Daijr/s, koj, and nikk have this entry, so I'd say it's worth including
6. A* 2023-09-10 02:20:25  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I think the commenter's is saying that if this entry's inclusion is based on n-grams, the count is inflated due to コップ's much more common "cup" meaning.
5. A 2023-09-10 01:31:02  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://github.com/JMdictProject/JMdictIssues/issues/94
  Comments:
No, in the names dictionary it's used to flag entries that are added to the JMdict XML distribution.
4. A* 2023-09-10 00:41:09 
  Comments:
Thr Spec1 is likely wrong here if it's based on the reading
(show/hide 3 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5000058 Active (id: 2276692)
PCエンジン
ピーシーエンジン [spec1]
1. [product]
▶ (NEC) PC Engine
▶ TurboGrafx-16



History:
5. A 2023-09-10 06:30:59  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
OK
4. A* 2023-09-10 04:34:40  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TurboGrafx-16
"The TurboGrafx-16, known as the PC Engine outside North America, is a home video game console designed by Hudson Soft and sold by NEC Home Electronics."
  Diff:
@@ -13,0 +14 @@
+<gloss>TurboGrafx-16</gloss>
3. A 2023-09-10 01:33:14  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2023-09-09 22:36:07 
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>(NEC) PC Engine (equiv: Turbografx 16)</gloss>
+<gloss>(NEC) PC Engine</gloss>
1. A 2023-05-04 01:41:54  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Adding spec1
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5000079 Active (id: 2276680)
au
エーユー [spec1]
1. [company]
▶ au (mobile phone operator)



History:
3. A 2023-09-10 01:33:29  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2023-09-09 22:30:25 
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>au (Japanese mobile phone brand)</gloss>
+<gloss>au (mobile phone operator)</gloss>
1. A 2023-05-08 23:46:10  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Adding spec1
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5000083 Active (id: 2276667)
iモード
アイモード [spec1]
1. [serv]
▶ i-mode (mobile internet service run by NTT DoCoMo)



History:
5. A 2023-09-09 23:23:44  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
4. A* 2023-09-09 22:33:35 
  Diff:
@@ -12,2 +12,2 @@
-<misc>&product;</misc>
-<gloss>i-mode (mobile internet service run by NTT DoCoMo in Japan)</gloss>
+<misc>&serv;</misc>
+<gloss>i-mode (mobile internet service run by NTT DoCoMo)</gloss>
3. A 2023-06-09 09:27:26  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2023-06-09 08:31:24  Opencooper
  Refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I-mode
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>mobile internet service run by NTT DoCoMo in Japan</gloss>
+<gloss>i-mode (mobile internet service run by NTT DoCoMo in Japan)</gloss>
1. A 2023-05-04 01:41:54  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Adding spec1
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5000084 Active (id: 2280391)
mixi
ミクシィ [spec1]
1. [company]
▶ mixi (social networking service)



History:
8. A 2023-10-17 10:43:06  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://www.weblio.jp/content/ミクシィ
  Comments:
I'll correct it.
7. A* 2023-10-17 10:37:02  Opencooper
  Comments:
We also have this in jmdict with the reading 「ミクシ」.
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>mixi (social networking sevice)</gloss>
+<gloss>mixi (social networking service)</gloss>
6. A 2023-09-10 11:47:10  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Then [company] is sufficient.
  Diff:
@@ -12,2 +12,2 @@
-<misc>&serv;</misc>
-<gloss>mixi (social networking site)</gloss>
+<misc>&company;</misc>
+<gloss>mixi (social networking sevice)</gloss>
5. A* 2023-09-10 10:52:58 
  Comments:
"Shouldnt be both" - but it is...
4. A 2023-09-10 01:34:21  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Shouldn't be both.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +11,0 @@
-<misc>&company;</misc>
(show/hide 3 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5190326 Deleted (id: 2276626)
看護学校
かんごがっこう
1. [place]
▶ Kangogakkou



History:
2. D 2023-09-09 10:56:15  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
1. D* 2023-09-09 07:30:39  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Not a specific place. Already in JMdict.

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5742152 Active (id: 2276678)
GU
ジーユー [spec1]
1. [company]
▶ GU (clothing retailer)



History:
7. A 2023-09-10 01:32:16  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
6. A* 2023-09-09 22:32:23 
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>GU (Japanese clothing retailer)</gloss>
+<gloss>GU (clothing retailer)</gloss>
5. A 2023-06-09 09:27:09  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
4. A* 2023-06-09 07:54:34  Opencooper
  Refs:
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ジーユー
  Comments:
A bit more.
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>GU (retailer)</gloss>
+<gloss>GU (Japanese clothing retailer)</gloss>
3. A 2023-05-08 23:48:36  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Adding spec1
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>
(show/hide 2 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5746458 Active (id: 2276652)
小説家になろう
しょうせつかになろう [spec1]
1. [serv]
▶ Shōsetsuka ni Narō (novel self-publishing website)



History:
5. A 2023-09-09 21:43:30  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://github.com/JMdictProject/JMdictIssues/issues/94
  Comments:
It flags it for inclusion in the JMdict XML distribution.
4. A* 2023-09-09 21:22:12 
  Comments:
Why is spec1 on the reading?
3. A 2023-09-09 15:34:21  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shōsetsuka_ni_Narō
  Comments:
Agreed.
I don't think we need to mention the company that runs it.
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>Let's Become a Novelist (novel submission site provided by the Hina Project company)</gloss>
+<gloss>Shōsetsuka ni Narō (novel self-publishing website)</gloss>
2. A* 2023-09-09 11:47:16 
  Comments:
If it doesn't have an official English name, then this entry shouldn't have one either.
1. A* 2023-09-09 06:27:11  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/小説家になろう
小説家になろう	131036

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmnedict 5746459 Active (id: 2276653)

ヒナプロジェクト [spec1]
1. [company]
▶ Hina Project



History:
4. A 2023-09-09 21:45:59  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://github.com/JMdictProject/JMdictIssues/issues/94
3. A* 2023-09-09 21:21:37 
  Comments:
Why spec1?
2. A 2023-09-09 20:25:33  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I'm not sure how useful an entry like this is. It's not a large/important company.
1. A* 2023-09-09 06:31:25  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://hinaproject.co.jp/

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml