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Entry Editing Reference

General Information
Edit Form Informational Fields
Edit Form Input Boxes
Tag Syntax
Keyword Abbreviations

General Information

Entries in the dictionaries held in the JMdictDB database are entered and edited using the JMdictDB Edit Language (JEL). It allows one to enter the core information of an entry in three text boxes (Kanji, Readings, Meanings) rather than the dozens of text boxes that would be required if every dictionary field used a separate text box for its entry. The syntax of JEL is similar to EDICT but with modifications to facilitate machine parsing. There is also a Quick Overview of JEL available for getting started. Please read and follow the JMdict/EDICT Editorial Policy when making submissions.

General Syntax Rules

The Edit Entry Form consists of a number of text boxes for entering information about an entry, but there are three that accept and parse JEL text: the Kanji, Readings, and Meanings boxes.

In the Kanji and Readings boxes, enter the entry's kanji form and readings. If the entry has more than one of either, separate them with semicolons; either ASCII or JIS semicolons can be used. Whitespace (including newlines) will be stripped from the beginning and end of each kanji and reading. If the Japanese is written only in kana, omit the Kanji part.

Enter meanings (aka glosses) in the Meanings box. Glosses are grouped into "senses", i.e. sets of related meanings, and each sense starts with a sense number enclosed in square brackets, e.g. [1]. This is followed by one or more glosses. When there is more than one gloss, they are separated by (ASCII) semicolons. If a gloss contains any semicolon (;) or left bracket ([) characters, they must be escaped with a backslash character (\). Whitespace (including newlines) is stripped from the beginning and end of each gloss. The actual numbers used in sense numbers are not significant: when entered into the database, senses will be ordered starting from 1 in the order they occur regardless of the sense numbers used in the Meanings box. Note that sense numbers are not tags (described below); they must not contain any characters (including whitespace) other than the number and cannot be grouped with other tags.


Tags provide extra information that applies to individual kanji, readings, senses, and glosses. Tags are enclosed in square brackets: [...]. Any number of tags, separated by commas, can be given inside a single pair of square brackets, and multiple sets of square brackets may be used, for example [n,vs] and [n][vs] will have identical effect. Kanji part and reading tags are given after the kanji or reading they apply to (and before the semicolon that preceedes the following kanji part or reading. Sense tags can occurs before or after any gloss and will apply to the entire sense. Gloss tags may occur before or after the gloss they apply to.

Tags are grouped into different types. For example there is a set of part-of-speech (pos) tags having values like n (noun), v5u (Godan verb), etc., and are used in senses. The tags in the "Kanji info" group provide information about kanji parts and have values like ateji (phonetic reading) and iK (word containing irregular kanji usage). Case is significant in tags; ik is not the same as iK.

See Tag Syntax for a list of tag groups and where each group may be used. See Keyword abbreviations for lists of the actual tag values in each group.

Some tags take arguments (see *note below) and are given in the form, tag_type=tag_value. In some cases the tag may be given multiple arguments separated by semicolons: tag_type=tag_value1;tag_value2;.... Some tags can be be given in the form, tag_type=tag_value, or just tag_value. Note that if the first form is used, multiple values are separated with semicolons (tag_type=tag_value1;tag_value2;...) but in the second form multiple values are separated with commas (tag_value1,tag_value2,...).

When tag values contains any of the ascii characters, <space> : ; , = / [ ], or the JIS characters, <space> ・ / ; 、, the tag value should be quoted with double quotes: [note="This is: a quoted text"]. This is commonly needed when creating an xref or restr tag that contains a "dotted" kanji or reading, for example [restr="アジア・太平洋戦争"]. To include a double quote character in quoted text, preceed it with a backslash (\) character.

Other tags, for example "lsrc" which is used to label the source language of a gairaigo, have formats specific to them.

Specifics on tags, their values, and their use, are given in the Kanji, Readings, Meanings, and Tag Syntax sections below.

*Note: Actually, all tags can be given in the form tag_type=tag_value. v5u is exactly equivalent to pos=v5u. The short form is usually more convenient, but the longer form may sometimes be needed to avoid misinterpretations. For example, lit can be the value of a gloss tag (literal gloss) or a language (Lithuanian). Since [lit] will be interpreted as "literal" when used with a gloss, you will need to use [lang=lit] if you want to provide a gloss in Lithuanian.

Edit Form Informational Fields

These boxes provide information about the entry being edited and are not changable. Depending on the JMdictDB configuration, not all of these boxes may be displayed. The same information is displayed in the Entry and Edit Confirmation forms.
The status of this entry. Every entry has one of three statuses: Active (A), Deleted (D) Rejected (R). Additionally, every entry is either Unapproved (the status code is followed by an asterisk, "*"), or Approved (status code not followed by asterisk.) (abbrs)
The database id number of this entry. Every entry (or more specifically, every version of an entry produced by an edit) has a unique id number in the database. This number is assigned by the system automatically and cannot be manually changed, although the system may change it sometimes.
The sequence number assigned to the entry. In general, all different versions (edits) of an entry will have the same sequence number. If not explicitly set, a new entry will be assigned an automatically generated sequence number. Only registered editors may explicitly set a sequence number on a new entry or change a sequence number on an existing one. (See the Editor Only section below.)
Src note
Information about the source of this entry. Only registered editors can change this. (See the Editor Only section below.)
Entr note
Information about this entry as a whole. Information pertaining to any of the meanings of this entry should go in sense notes in the appropriate sense(s). Only registered editors can change this. (See the Editor Only section below.)

Edit Form Input Boxes

The corpus in which the entry exists or (for new entries) should be entered. (abbrs) In some cases, the corpus value will be selectable when editing an entry; in other cases it will be preset and only registered editors can change it. (See the Editor Only section below.)
Enter the kanji form(s) of the word or expression, separated by semicolons (either Western or Japanese semicolons are ok). Kanji information (syntax, abbrs) and frequency (syntax, abbrs) tags, enclosed in square brackets ([]) may optionally follow any kanji (before the semicolon if present.)
  • Every kanji form listed must contain at least one kanji or other non-kana character. (In this case, the "sokuon" (ー) vowel extension character is regarded as a kana character.)
  • If the word being entered is written only in kana, leave this field blank and enter the kana in the Reading box.
  • Kanji forms should be listed in order of "commonness": the most commonly used kanji form first, the most rarely used last.
  • Multiple sets of bracketed tags may be given.
  • Multiple tags may occur in within a single pair of brackets, separated by commas.
  • Order of tags is not significant.
  • Conflicting tags (e.g. nf14 and nf19) may not be applied to the same kanji.
  • Frequency tags are only processed when submitted by registered editors. If you are not registered, you should should note in the Comments section any freq tags you believe should be applied.
Example: 缶 [ateji,ichi1,news1][nf6] ; 罐 [ateji,oK ]
Enter the readings/kana forms used for this word, separated by semicolons (either Western or Japanese semicolons are ok.) Reading information tags (syntax, abbrs), frequency tags (syntax, abbrs), or restrictions (syntax) enclosed in square brackets ([]) may optionally follow any reading (before the semicolon if present.
  • Readings may not contain any non-kana characters.
  • Readings should be listed in order of "commonness": the most commonly used reading first, the most rarely used last.
  • Multiple sets of bracketed tags may be given.
  • Multiple tags may occur in within a single pair of brackets, separated by commas.
  • Order of tags is not significant.
  • Conflicting tags (e.g. nf14 and nf19) may not be applied to the same reading.
  • Frequency tags are only processed when submitted by registered editors. If you are not registered, you should should note in the Comments section any frequency tags you believe should be applied.
  • Use a restriction tag to indicate when a reading is only used with a subset of the kanji forms listed in the Kanji box.
  • If multiple kanji forms are used with an "restr" tag, separate them with a semicolon (ASCII or JIS). However if you give multiple restriction kanji forms without an explicit "restr" tag, separate them with commas (ASCII or JIS): じゃがいも[restr=じゃが芋;馬鈴薯] or じゃがいも[じゃが芋,馬鈴薯]
  • If a kana form is not associated with any kanji, use a "restr=nokanji" tag or equivalently but more simply, just a "nokanji" tag. (This typically occurs with plant and animal names where the katakana form is not normally associated with the kanji form.)
Examples: のり [gikun,ichi1,news2][nf38] ; ノリ[ichi1,news2,nf38]
じゃがいも [spec1,restr=じゃが芋;馬鈴薯] ; ジャガイモ [nokanji]
Enter meanings (glosses), and their associated tags in the Meanings box. Group them into senses, i.e. sets of related meanings.
  • Each sense starts with a sense number in brackets, e.g., "[1]".
  • Sense numbers are not significant other than to signify the start of a new sense. When the entry is added to the database, senses will be numbered from 1 in the order they occured in the Meanings text box, regardless of the actual sense numbers used.
  • Following the sense number are any number of sense tags, glosses and gloss tags, which may be freely intermixed.
  • Multiple glosses in a sense are separated by semicolons. Glosses do not need to be enclosed in quotes. even when they contain space characters. Gloss tags (see below) are considered part of the gloss. Example:
    This is gloss 1 [lit]; [fig] This is gloss 2; This is gloss 3
  • If a gloss contains left bracket ([) or semicolon (;) characters, those characters must be escaped by preceeding them with a backlslash (\). Example:
    This is a single gloss\; even though it contains a semicolon Note that right brackets (]) are not escaped.
  • Sense tags are enclosed in square brackets. Multiple tags may occur in within a single pair of brackets, separated by commas. Sense tag apply to the entire sense, no matter where they appear textully in the sense.
  • Line breaks are not significant: senses do not have to start on new lines, and glosses and tags may extend over several lines.
  • Sense tag values, and specifically part-of-speech tags, are not propagated to following senses. If sense [2] is a noun, you must explicity say so, even though sense [1] was a noun.
  • Sense tags are:
    • ant -- An antonym cross-reference (syntax)
    • dial -- Dialect (syntax, abbrs)
    • fld -- Domain (syntax, abbrs)
    • lsrc -- Source word and language (syntax, abbrs)
    • misc -- Misc sense tags (syntax, abbrs)
    • note -- Sense-related notes (syntax)
    • pos -- Grammatical part-of-speech (syntax, abbrs)
    • restr -- Reading and kanji restrictions (syntax). An explicit "restr=" is optional and any untagged kanji or kana string will taken as a kanji or reading restriction respectively.
    • see -- A "see also" cross reference (syntax)
  • The syntax of gloss information (or ginf) tags is the same as for sense tags but ginf tags apply only to the gloss they are adjacent to. They may occur before or after the gloss they apply to. There are two type of gloss tags: translation type tags (syntax, abbrs) and gloss language tags (syntax, abbrs). Each gloss can have only one translation tag and one language tag.
  • The most frequently use translation tag is:
    • equ -- Equivalent translation. This is the default if no other translation tag is given.
    • See the Ginf tags list (abbrs) for other values.
  • Ginf language tags are:
    • lang -- Value can be any of the three-letter language codes from ISO-639-2. This tag indicate the language of the associated gloss. If not given, the default is "eng" (english). Note that if you want to give a Lithuanian ("lit") gloss, you must use [lang=lit] as [lit] will be interpreted as the gloss translation tag, "literal". (abbr)
  • When you add a cross reference using a [see=] or [ant=] tag, the cross reference will also appear in the referenced entry under the heading, "References to this sense".
[1][n,vs] cherry blossom viewing; flower viewing

Produces results identical to the preceeding example:
[1] cherry blossom viewing [vs];
  flower viewing [n]

[1][exp] anyone can make a mistake
 [lit] even monkeys fall from trees

 that person (guy, fellow)
[2][pn][adj-no] that (one)

[1][int,col] Go for it (kiddy talk)
[2] Keep at it

[1][n] [note="possibly from 八九三"]
  professional gambler or ruffian;
  yakuza (member)

[1][exp] welcome; [fre] bienvenue!
[note="greeting used in shops, etc."]

Click this checkbox if you wish the entire entry to be deleted. Please enter the case for deletion in the Comments and References boxes. These will be preserved in the stub entry used to record deletions. There is no point in changing the entry content and any such changes are ignored.
Enter sources that validate the entry or entry changes being made. This is a free form text field and can include example text using the entry.
Examples: Daijirin, 広辞苑, 新和英大辞典第5版 (often abbreviated to "GG5".)
Enter any comments you want the editors to read when reviewing this entry. These comments will be added to the historical record of this entry. This is a free form text field.
Your full name. Consistently using the same name will allow to easily search for your submissions later.
Your email address. Required if you want email notification of actions taken that affect your submission. This will not be publically disclosed. Email notification not implemented yet.

Editor-only Input Boxes

The following items will only be visible if you are logged in as an editor.

Dropdown box with the following choices:
  • Submit -- Submit the entry as pending, just as a non-logged in sumitter would.
  • Approve -- The entry will be approved. The entries that this entry is based on will be deleted, and the current entry will become the active entry.
  • Reject -- The current entry will be marked rejected, and all entries it was based on, except the original entry will be deleted. The original entry will remain as the active entry.
Specify an explicit sequence number for this entry. (Normally this field will be left blank and an edit of an existing entry will keep the same sequence number, a new entry will automatically be assigned the next available sequence number.)
Src Note
Enter a source note. This should provide additional information useful for identifying or locating this entry within the corpus. For example, "page 104" or, "sci.lang.japan MessageId:ltb0jenj$jcd$" The text should either be self-describing, or use a consistent format and interpretation for all the srcnotes of a particular corpus.
Entr Note
Enter an entry note. This is ad hoc information that applies to the entry as a whole. Information specific to a sense (even if there is only one sense) should go in a sense note.
Groups that this entry will be assigned to. Enter group names or group Id numbers separated by semi-colons (";") if more than one. Each group name or id number may optionally be followed by a period (".") and an order number. If the same group is given more than once only the last occurance will be used on.

Tag Syntax

Tag group Tag Description Where used Format Examples
dial kwds Dialect Senses [dial=kw] or just [kw] [ksb] [dial=ksb]
ginf kwds Translation type Gloss [kw] gloss text...
(1) Since "equ" (equivalent translation) is the default ginf value for glosses, it will rarely need to be specified explicitly.
(2) The tag can placed at either the beginning or end of the gloss text.
there are no birds in last year's nest
[lit] there aren't always loach under the willow tree
[expl] good luck does not always repeat itself
fld kwds Domain, aka field-of-application tags Senses [fld=kw] or just [kw] [food]
freq kwds Frequency-of-use codes Kanji, Readings [freq=kw] or just [kw] [ichi1]
kinf kwds Kanji information Kanji [kinf=kw] or just [kw] [ateji]
lang kwds Language Senses (applies to gloss) [xxx] gloss text...
(1) Specifies the language of the associated gloss. "xxx" is a three-letter code from ISO-639-2.
See language keywords for a full list. (2) The tag can placed at either the beginning or end of the gloss text.
(3) If not given, default is "eng" (english).
[eng] welcome!; [fre] bienvenue!
lsrc lsrc Source language and word. Senses lsrc=lng/wp:text]
(1) "lng" is an optional three-letter language code from ISO-639-2. See language keywords for a full list. If not given, default is "eng" (English).
(2) "wp:" optional and is either w: (wasei), p: (partial), or wp: (wasei and partial). A slash character is used to separate the "lng" and "wp" arguments and should not be given unless both arguments are given. The ":" is required.
(3) "text" is optional. If given it must be enclosed in quotes (&) if it contains spaces, commas, slashes or other special characters. Otherwise quotes are not needed.
[lsrc=eng/w:"eye mate"]
misc kwds Miscellaneous sense information Senses [misc=kw] or just [kw] [sl,derog]
note note Ad-hoc sense information. Senses [note="the note text..."]
(1) The text must be enclosed in quotes (&) if it contains spaces or commas. Otherwise quotes are not needed.
[note="misspelling of こんにちは"]
pos kwds Part-of-speech information Senses [pos=kw] or just [kw] [n,vs]
rinf kwds Reading information Readings [rinf=kw] or just [kw] [ok]
restr restr Reading and sense restrictions. Readings, Senses [XX,XX,...]

(1) If the tag is in the Reading section, the XX's must be kanji strings occuring in the Kanji section.
(2) If the tag is in the Reading section, XX may be "nokanji". When "nokanji", no other XX's may be used on the reading the tag applies to.
(3) If the tag is in a Sense, the XX's may be either kana strings that occur in the Reading section, or kanji strings that occur in the Kanji section.
(4) Restr tags are not allowed in the Kanji section.
(5) Multiple reading or kanji restriction text may follow the "restr=" part; separate them with ASCII or JIS semicolons.
(6) The "restr=" part is optional, you can also just put the kanji or reading restriction text in brackets (separated by ASCII or JIS commas).
(7) To create a restr tag to a kanji or reading that contains a "・" character or other special characters such as numerics, put the kanji or reading inside double quotes.
[restr="アジア・太平洋戦争"] [一人一人,"1人1人"]
xref see, ant Cross-reference Senses (a) [TYP=SEQ CORP・KK・RR[sense-nums]]
(b) [TYP=KK・RR CORP[sense-nums]]

(1) TYP can be either "see" or "ant":
  • see: See also (a general cross reference)
  • ant: Antonym
(2) SEQ is the sequence number of the of the cross reference target. CORP is the corpus name containing the cross reference target and is only needed if different than the entry being edited. KK is the kanji of the cross reference target, RR is its reading. sense-nums is the specific sense(s) in the target being referenced. At least one of SEQ, KK, or RR must be given.
(3-form a) If SEQ is given, KK and RR are optional and if given will be used when displaying the xref. If KK and/or RR are not given, a suitable KK/RR pair for display will be selected automatically.
(4-form b) SEQ・ may be left out if KK and/or RR are supplied and uniquely identify a single target entry. The kanji (KK・ part) or reading (・RR part) may be left out if the remaining part still uniquely identifies the target entry.
(5) In other words, the difference between the two forms is:
  • The xref target is uniquely identified by SEQ (and CORP if given.) KK/RR are used only when displaying the xref.
  • The xref target is identified by searching for KK and RR (in corpus CORP if given, in the current corpus if not) and the xref will be unresolved if there are mutiple or no entries that match.
(6) sense-nums is optional if the target word has only one sense. Otherwise, it must be given. Multiple sense numbers can be given, separated by commas.
(7) To make an cross reference to a kanji or reading entry that contains a "・" character, put the kanji or reading in double quotes.
(8) When an entry is displayed, it will show cross references to other entries with a right-pointing arrow (⇒). These cross references will appear as [see=...] or [ant=...] tags in the edit page and can be edited directly. Cross references shown with a left-pointing arrow (⇐) are references to this entry from another one and won't appear on the edit page. To change these, edit the other entry. A bi-directional arrow (⇔) indicates each entry has a cross reference to the other.
[see="スポーツ・ファン"] [see=万事 jmnedict]

Keyword abbreviations

Rinf -- reading info

gikun gikun (meaning as reading) or jukujikun (special kanji reading) 1
go on-yomi, go 130
ik word containing irregular kana usage 3
jouyou approved reading for jouyou kanji 105
kan on-yomi, kan 129
kanyou on-yomi, kan\'you 132
kun kun-yomi 106
name reading used only in names (nanori) 103
ok out-dated or obsolete kana usage 2
on on-yomi 128
rad reading used as name of radical 104
rk rarely used kana form 5
sk search-only kana form 4
tou on-yomi, tou 131

Kinf -- kanji info

ateji ateji (phonetic) reading 5
iK word containing irregular kanji usage 1
ik word containing irregular kana usage 4
io irregular okurigana usage 2
oK word containing out-dated kanji or kanji usage 3
rK rarely used kanji form 6
sK search-only kanji form 7

Freq -- frequency-of-use metrics
The Freq keywords below denote the frequency-of-use scale. They are always followed by a number that gives a value on that scale. The valid numbers for gai, ichi, news, and spec is 1 or 2. For nf it is 1 through 48. Thus, you can use "ich1" or "ichi2" but not "ichi3", or "nf27" but not "nf49".

gai Common loanwords based on wordfreq file, 1-2 2
ichi Ranking from "Ichimango goi bunruishuu", 1-2. 1
news Ranking in wordfreq file, 1-2 7
nf Ranking in wordfreq file, 1-48 5
spec Ranking assigned by JMdict editors, 1-2 4

Misc -- miscellaneous sense info

abbr abbreviation 2
aphorism aphorism (pithy saying) 82
arch archaic 3
char character 174
chn children's language 4
col colloquial 5
company company name 184
creat creature 175
dated dated term 86
dei deity 176
derog derogatory 6
doc document 178
euph euphemistic 29
ev event 172
fam familiar language 8
fem female term, language, or name 9
fict fiction 160
form formal or literary term 88
given given name or forename, gender not specified 189
group group 179
hist historical term 87
hon honorific or respectful (sonkeigo) language 11
hum humble (kenjougo) language 12
id idiomatic expression 13
joc jocular, humorous term 28
leg legend 162
m-sl manga slang 14
male male term, language, or name 15
myth mythology 161
net-sl Internet slang 85
obj object 173
obs obsolete term 17
on-mim onomatopoeic or mimetic word 27
organization organization name 191
oth other 177
person full name of a particular person 188
place place name 182
poet poetical term 26
pol polite (teineigo) language 19
product product name 185
proverb proverb 81
quote quotation 83
rare rare term 18
relig religion 170
sens sensitive 25
serv service 171
ship ship name 193
sl slang 21
station railway station 190
surname family or surname 181
uk word usually written using kana alone 22
unclass unclassified name 183
vulg vulgar expression or word 24
work work of art, literature, music, etc. name 192
X rude or X-rated term (not displayed in educational software) 1
yoji yojijukugo 84

Pos -- part-of-speech info

adj-f noun or verb acting prenominally 56
adj-i adjective (keiyoushi) 1
adj-ix adjective (keiyoushi) - yoi/ii class 7
adj-kari 'kari' adjective (archaic) 63
adj-ku 'ku' adjective (archaic) 64
adj-na adjectival nouns or quasi-adjectives (keiyodoshi) 2
adj-nari archaic/formal form of na-adjective 66
adj-no nouns which may take the genitive case particle 'no' 3
adj-pn pre-noun adjectival (rentaishi) 4
adj-shiku 'shiku' adjective (archaic) 65
adj-t 'taru' adjective 5
adv adverb (fukushi) 6
adv-to adverb taking the 'to' particle 8
aux auxiliary 9
aux-adj auxiliary adjective 10
aux-v auxiliary verb 11
conj conjunction 12
cop copula 15
ctr counter 51
exp expressions (phrases, clauses, etc.) 13
int interjection (kandoushi) 14
n noun (common) (futsuumeishi) 17
n-adv adverbial noun (fukushitekimeishi) 18
n-pr proper noun 67
n-pref noun, used as a prefix 20
n-suf noun, used as a suffix 19
n-t noun (temporal) (jisoumeishi) 21
num numeric 24
pn pronoun 61
pref prefix 25
prt particle 26
suf suffix 27
unc unclassified 98
v-unspec verb unspecified 68
v1 Ichidan verb 28
v1-s Ichidan verb - kureru special class 29
v2a-s Nidan verb with 'u' ending (archaic) 59
v2b-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'bu' ending (archaic) 81
v2b-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'bu' ending (archaic) 93
v2d-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'dzu' ending (archaic) 79
v2d-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'dzu' ending (archaic) 90
v2g-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'gu' ending (archaic) 77
v2g-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'gu' ending (archaic) 86
v2h-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'hu/fu' ending (archaic) 80
v2h-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'hu/fu' ending (archaic) 92
v2k-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'ku' ending (archaic) 76
v2k-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'ku' ending (archaic) 85
v2m-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'mu' ending (archaic) 82
v2m-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'mu' ending (archaic) 94
v2n-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'nu' ending (archaic) 91
v2r-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'ru' ending (archaic) 84
v2r-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'ru' ending (archaic) 96
v2s-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'su' ending (archaic) 87
v2t-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'tsu' ending (archaic) 78
v2t-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'tsu' ending (archaic) 89
v2w-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'u' ending and 'we' conjugation (archaic) 97
v2y-k Nidan verb (upper class) with 'yu' ending (archaic) 83
v2y-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'yu' ending (archaic) 95
v2z-s Nidan verb (lower class) with 'zu' ending (archaic) 88
v4b Yodan verb with 'bu' ending (archaic) 74
v4g Yodan verb with 'gu' ending (archaic) 70
v4h Yodan verb with 'hu/fu' ending (archaic) 60
v4k Yodan verb with 'ku' ending (archaic) 69
v4m Yodan verb with 'mu' ending (archaic) 75
v4n Yodan verb with 'nu' ending (archaic) 73
v4r Yodan verb with 'ru' ending (archaic) 53
v4s Yodan verb with 'su' ending (archaic) 71
v4t Yodan verb with 'tsu' ending (archaic) 72
v5aru Godan verb - -aru special class 30
v5b Godan verb with 'bu' ending 31
v5g Godan verb with 'gu' ending 32
v5k Godan verb with 'ku' ending 33
v5k-s Godan verb - Iku/Yuku special class 34
v5m Godan verb with 'mu' ending 35
v5n Godan verb with 'nu' ending 36
v5r Godan verb with 'ru' ending 37
v5r-i Godan verb with 'ru' ending (irregular verb) 38
v5s Godan verb with 'su' ending 39
v5t Godan verb with 'tsu' ending 40
v5u Godan verb with 'u' ending 41
v5u-s Godan verb with 'u' ending (special class) 42
v5uru Godan verb - Uru old class verb (old form of Eru) 43
vi intransitive verb 44
vk Kuru verb - special class 45
vn irregular nu verb 52
vr irregular ru verb, plain form ends with -ri 58
vs noun or participle which takes the aux. verb suru 46
vs-c su verb - precursor to the modern suru 62
vs-i suru verb - included 48
vs-s suru verb - special class 47
vt transitive verb 50
vz Ichidan verb - zuru verb (alternative form of -jiru verbs) 49

Fld -- usage domain

agric agriculture 63
anat anatomy 28
archeol archeology 45
archit architecture 11
art art, aesthetics 52
astron astronomy 12
audvid audiovisual 67
aviat aviation 61
baseb baseball 13
biochem biochemistry 37
biol biology 14
bot botany 15
boxing boxing 93
Buddh Buddhism 1
bus business 16
cards card games 75
chem chemistry 10
chmyth Chinese mythology 95
Christn Christianity 31
civeng civil engineering 89
cloth clothing 72
comp computing 2
cryst crystallography 48
dent dentistry 74
ecol ecology 51
econ economics 17
elec electricity, elec. eng. 35
electr electronics 41
embryo embryology 55
engr engineering 18
ent entomology 36
figskt figure skating 87
film film 84
finc finance 19
fish fishing 57
food food, cooking 3
gardn gardening, horticulture 58
genet genetics 53
geogr geography 56
geol geology 20
geom geometry 4
go go (game) 65
golf golf 47
gramm grammar 40
grmyth Greek mythology 44
hanaf hanafuda 66
horse horse racing 54
internet networking, WWW 94
jpmyth Japanese mythology 96
kabuki kabuki 77
law law 21
ling linguistics 5
logic logic 46
MA martial arts 6
mahj mahjong 29
manga manga 73
math mathematics 7
mech mechanical engineering 60
med medicine 22
met meteorology 38
mil military 8
min mineralogy 91
mining mining 76
motor motorsport 88
music music 23
noh noh 78
ornith ornithology 69
paleo paleontology 50
pathol pathology 49
pharm pharmacology 34
phil philosophy 32
photo photography 43
physics physics 9
physiol physiology 33
politics politics 79
print printing 64
prowres professional wrestling 86
psy psychiatry 71
psyanal psychoanalysis 83
psych psychology 42
rail railway 70
rommyth Roman mythology 82
Shinto Shinto 24
shogi shogi 30
ski skiing 81
sports sports 25
stat statistics 62
stockm stock market 80
sumo sumo 26
surg surgery 90
telec telecommunications 59
tradem trademark 39
tv television 85
vet veterinary terms 92
vidg video games 68
zool zoology 27

Dial -- dialect

bra Brazilian 13
hob Hokkaido-ben 12
ksb Kansai-ben 2
ktb Kantou-ben 3
kyb Kyoto-ben 4
kyu Kyuushuu-ben 9
nab Nagano-ben 11
osb Osaka-ben 5
rkb Ryuukyuu-ben 10
std Tokyo-ben (std) 1
thb Touhoku-ben 7
tsb Tosa-ben 6
tsug Tsugaru-ben 8

Lang -- language
These three-letter codes are the same as those defined in ISO-639-2. Any of the ISO 639-2 codes may be used in JMdictDB (use the B version when there is a choice). The table below lists only those codes currently in use in JMdictDB.

eng English 1
afr Afrikaans 9
ain Ainu 10
alg Algonquian languages 15
amh Amharic 17
ara Arabic 21
arn Mapudungun; Mapuche 25
bnt Bantu (Other) 58
bre Breton 61
bul Bulgarian 65
bur Burmese 66
chi Chinese 79
chn Chinook jargon 82
cze Czech 101
dan Danish 103
dut Dutch; Flemish 116
epo Esperanto 125
est Estonian 126
fil Filipino; Pilipino 133
fin Finnish 134
fre French 137
geo Georgian 149
ger German 150
glg Galician 155
grc Greek, Ancient (to 1453) 163
gre Greek, Modern (1453-) 164
haw Hawaiian 172
heb Hebrew 173
hin Hindi 177
hun Hungarian 182
ice Icelandic 186
ind Indonesian 195
ita Italian 201
khm Central Khmer 221
kor Korean 230
kur Kurdish 239
lat Latin 245
lit Lithuanian 250
mal Malayalam 267
mao Maori 269
mas Masai 272
may Malay 273
mnc Manchu 284
mol Moldavian 288
mon Mongolian 289
nor Norwegian 316
per Persian 342
pol Polish 346
por Portuguese 348
rum Romanian 360
rus Russian 363
san Sanskrit 370
scr Croatian 376
slo Slovak 387
slv Slovenian 388
som Somali 400
spa Spanish; Castilian 403
swa Swahili 413
swe Swedish 414
tah Tahitian 417
tam Tamil 419
tgl Tagalog 426
tha Thai 427
tib Tibetan 428
tur Turkish 445
ukr Ukrainian 453
urd Urdu 456
vie Vietnamese 460
yid Yiddish 475

Ginf -- gloss info

equ equivalent 1
expl explanatory 4
fig figuratively 3
lit literally 2
tm trademark 5

Src -- corpus info

jmdict 1
jmnedict 2
test Corpus for testing and experimentation 99

Stat -- entry status

A Active 2
D Deleted 4
R Rejected 6

Xref -- cross-reference types
Note that only "ant" and "see" are currently used in JMdict.

ant Antonym 2
cf cf. 4
ex Usage example 5
kvar Kanji variant 8
pref Preferred 7
see See also 3
syn Synonym 1
uses Uses 6
vtvi Transitive-intransitive verb pair 9