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jmdict 1113020 Active (id: 2222010)

フロントオフィスフロント・オフィス
1. [n]
▶ front office
▶ head office
▶ top management
▶ executive office



History:
5. A 2023-02-16 10:52:52  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
4. A* 2023-02-16 08:15:54 
  Refs:
フロントオフィス	6500	100.0%
フロントオフェス	0	0.0%
  Diff:
@@ -8,3 +7,0 @@
-<reb>フロントオフェス</reb>
-</r_ele>
-<r_ele>
@@ -12,3 +8,0 @@
-</r_ele>
-<r_ele>
-<reb>フロント・オフェス</reb>
3. A 2014-06-23 08:21:18  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2014-06-19 02:09:40  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Ngrams, daijr: "本部。首脳部。事務局。"
  Comments:
More usual spelling.
  Diff:
@@ -4,0 +5,3 @@
+<reb>フロントオフィス</reb>
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
@@ -5,0 +9,3 @@
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
+<reb>フロント・オフィス</reb>
@@ -12,0 +19,3 @@
+<gloss>head office</gloss>
+<gloss>top management</gloss>
+<gloss>executive office</gloss>
1. A 2014-06-19 00:58:17  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -5,0 +6,3 @@
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
+<reb>フロント・オフェス</reb>

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jmdict 1118970 Active (id: 2222039)

ヘルベチア
1. [n] Source lang: lat
▶ Helvetia
▶ Switzerland
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1067190 【スイス】 1. Switzerland



History:
6. A 2023-02-16 22:01:26  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helvetia
5. A* 2023-02-16 20:06:18  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
"Helvetia" is in English dictionaries.
  Diff:
@@ -9 +9,3 @@
-<lsource xml:lang="lat">Helvetia</lsource>
+<xref type="see" seq="1067190">スイス</xref>
+<lsource xml:lang="lat"/>
+<gloss>Helvetia</gloss>
4. A 2015-06-10 04:25:05  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Hmm. It's really a variant country name.
3. A* 2015-06-09 19:09:34  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
enamdict?
2. A 2015-06-09 19:09:16  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
(show/hide 1 older log entries)

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jmdict 1147330 Active (id: 2222028)
[oK]
(nokanji)
1. [n] [abbr]
▶ Russia
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1775880 露西亜【ロシア】 1. Russia



History:
8. A 2023-02-16 20:10:47  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Style alignment.
  Diff:
@@ -20,3 +20 @@
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
-<xref type="see" seq="1775880">露西亜</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1775880">露西亜・ロシア</xref>
7. A 2020-04-15 21:17:54  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
6. A* 2020-04-15 13:12:53  dine <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daijr: https://kotobank.jp/word/露・魯-413242
「ロシアの漢字略称「魯」が「露」に変わったワケ」 https://style.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDB04004_U2A900C1000000
  Diff:
@@ -5,0 +6,4 @@
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>魯</keb>
+<ke_inf>&oK;</ke_inf>
5. A 2019-06-21 23:07:50  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I guess having both is "safer". I don't think the form of the reading is a big issue here but it's good to be consistent.
4. A* 2019-06-21 22:38:37  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Actually daijr only has the ろ reading (in their non-kanwa entry). But katakana ロ is common in newspaper titles:
"デモ隊1万人が議会突入試みる ジョージア、ロ議員演説に怒り"
so I think the original ろ;ロ[nokanji] was actually more correct.
  Diff:
@@ -7,0 +8,3 @@
+<reb>ろ</reb>
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
@@ -8,0 +12 @@
+<re_nokanji/>
(show/hide 3 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1163250 Active (id: 2222034)
一蹴り
ひとけり
1. [n,vs,vt]
▶ one kick
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1163240 一蹴【いっしゅう】 3. one kick

Conjugations


History:
6. A 2023-02-16 21:49:24  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Aligning.
  Diff:
@@ -12,0 +13 @@
+<pos>&vt;</pos>
@@ -14 +15 @@
-<gloss>kick</gloss>
+<gloss>one kick</gloss>
5. A 2020-10-24 21:02:15  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Thanks. The discussion on the Tatoeba sentence is useful too.
4. A* 2020-10-24 14:41:29  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Note, all google search results for "提案を一蹴りした" link back to this one sentence:
https://tatoeba.org/eng/sentences/show/182876

Google finds 0 matches for 
"提案を一蹴りする"
  Comments:
I have read the various comments here about the cross-referenced meaning of "flatly rejecting", and the previous decision that it was best kept. 

I'd like to chime in the other direction.  I was in a Japanese university classroom in Tokyo, studying a news article that used the "一蹴する" formulation, and this was an explicit vocabulary term to study for the week.  I use jisho.org, which uses jmdictdb as a source, so I naturally also encountered the ひとけり kunyomi reading here.  I asked the native Japanese teacher what the difference was between いっしゅう and ひとけり, and she almost laughed just trying to imagine it.  It registered to her as 'absurd'.  I later confirmed this reaction with about 10 native Japanese classmates.

It was explained to my that "hitokeri suru", while perfectly valid(explaining the high n-gram occurrences), means something like "literally kicking a ball". For the speakers I talked to, the figurative interpretation was nonexistent. 

This seems to be proven out by a larger search for "reject a proposal". There is an entry sentence on tatoeba.org, which I believe is also erroneous, translating an English sentence about rejecting a proposal "提案を一蹴りした".

I think the tanaka corpus, referenced by an earlier comment, is the source of the tatoeba entry?   

A google search for "提案を一蹴した"(the isshuu reading) yields many active links on both google search and google news.  A search for the alternate "提案を一蹴りした"(hitokeri) yields no news links at all.  The few standard search results are *all* roundabout links to the tatoeba.org sentence.

Now, probably the only way to be lead astray by this entry is to discover "一蹴する", look it up, see the cross-reference, and blindly add the cross-referenced kunyomi to a flashcard deck.  Well, that's how I ended up here anyway...

Thank you for your consideration.
  Diff:
@@ -15,6 +14,0 @@
-</sense>
-<sense>
-<pos>&n;</pos>
-<pos>&vs;</pos>
-<xref type="see" seq="1163240">一蹴・いっしゅう・1</xref>
-<gloss>rejection</gloss>
3. A 2018-01-11 22:30:43  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Yes, in Eijiro: https://eow.alc.co.jp/search?q=一蹴りする  JWN too (but that may be from here). 5k+ in the Google n-grams. I think it's best kept.
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12,2 @@
+<pos>&vs;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1163240">一蹴・いっしゅう・3</xref>
@@ -12,0 +15,5 @@
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<pos>&vs;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1163240">一蹴・いっしゅう・1</xref>
2. A* 2018-01-08 14:16:48  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
There's a couple of eijiro examples and one Tanaka. I'll 
need to dig into it.
(show/hide 1 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1202130 Active (id: 2222008)
界隈 [spec1,news2,nf41] 界わい [sK]
かいわい [spec1,news2,nf41]
1. [n,n-suf]
▶ neighborhood
▶ neighbourhood
▶ vicinity



History:
5. A 2023-02-16 10:49:20  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
4. A* 2023-02-16 06:36:30  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーー─┬─────────┬───────╮
│ 界隈   │ 925,436 │ 97.2% │
│ 界わい  │   7,540 │  0.8% │ - adding
│ かいわい │  19,096 │  2.0% │
╰─ーーーー─┴─────────┴───────╯
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9,4 @@
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>界わい</keb>
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
3. A 2018-04-08 06:10:05  Johan Råde <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
G n-grams 925436
  Diff:
@@ -7,0 +8 @@
+<ke_pri>spec1</ke_pri>
@@ -12,0 +14 @@
+<re_pri>spec1</re_pri>
2. A 2012-06-07 11:07:32  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2012-06-07 09:33:44  Nils Roland Barth <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5 daijr koj
  Comments:
* pos [n-suf] – often used as suffix
* add gloss “vicinity”
  Diff:
@@ -16,0 +16,1 @@
+<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
@@ -18,0 +19,1 @@
+<gloss>vicinity</gloss>

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jmdict 1223700 Active (id: 2222021)
起つ
たつ
1. [v5t,vi]
▶ to take action
▶ to act
▶ to rise (up)
▶ to rouse oneself
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1597040 立つ 10. to take action; to act; to rise (up); to rouse oneself

Conjugations


History:
2. A 2023-02-16 19:29:08  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-02-16 19:09:12  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Aligning.
  Diff:
@@ -13,2 +13,5 @@
-<gloss>to rise up</gloss>
-<gloss>to initiate (political) action</gloss>
+<xref type="see" seq="1597040">立つ・10</xref>
+<gloss>to take action</gloss>
+<gloss>to act</gloss>
+<gloss>to rise (up)</gloss>
+<gloss>to rouse oneself</gloss>

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jmdict 1360940 Active (id: 2222011)
心拍 [news2,nf39] 心搏 [rK]
しんぱく [news2,nf39]
1. [n]
▶ heartbeat



History:
5. A 2023-02-16 11:41:03  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I don't think the x-ref is needed.
  Diff:
@@ -20,2 +19,0 @@
-<pos>&adj-no;</pos>
-<xref type="see" seq="1938910">心拍数・しんぱくすう</xref>
4. A 2023-02-15 22:49:49  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-02-15 22:48:36  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーー─┬─────────┬───────╮
│ 心拍   │ 561,196 │ 99.7% │
│ 心搏   │     225 │  0.0% │ - adding (daijr/s, koj, etc.)
│ しんぱく │   1,471 │  0.3% │
╰─ーーーー─┴─────────┴───────╯
  Diff:
@@ -7,0 +8,4 @@
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>心搏</keb>
+<ke_inf>&rK;</ke_inf>
2. A 2017-06-04 01:58:37  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
医学英和辞典, Daijr, GG5, etc.
  Diff:
@@ -16,0 +17 @@
+<xref type="see" seq="1938910">心拍数・しんぱくすう</xref>
1. A* 2017-06-04 00:43:16  Mislav Blažević <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daijs/r,koj
  Comments:
heart rate is 心拍数
  Diff:
@@ -17 +17 @@
-<gloss>heart rate</gloss>
+<gloss>heartbeat</gloss>

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jmdict 1450800 Active (id: 2222048)
頭角を現す頭角をあらわす頭角を表す頭角を現わす [sK] 頭角を表わす [sK]
とうかくをあらわす
1. [exp,v5s] [id]
▶ to distinguish oneself
▶ to stand out
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 1450790 頭角【とうかく】 1. top of the head

Conjugations


History:
4. A 2023-02-17 00:28:13  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-02-16 22:08:50  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーーーーーーー─┬────────┬───────╮
│ 頭角を現す     │ 15,325 │ 69.7% │ - (daijr/s, koj, obunsha)
│ 頭角をあらわす   │  3,789 │ 17.2% │
│ 頭角を表す     │  1,802 │  8.2% │
│ 頭角を現わす    │    809 │  3.7% │ - sK (nikk)
│ 頭角を表わす    │    180 │  0.8% │ - sK
│ とうかくをあらわす │     87 │  0.4% │
╰─ーーーーーーーーー─┴────────┴───────╯
  Diff:
@@ -8 +8 @@
-<keb>頭角を現わす</keb>
+<keb>頭角をあらわす</keb>
@@ -14 +14,2 @@
-<keb>頭角を表わす</keb>
+<keb>頭角を現わす</keb>
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
@@ -17 +18,2 @@
-<keb>頭角をあらわす</keb>
+<keb>頭角を表わす</keb>
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
2. A 2020-01-03 19:32:06  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
kenkyusha kogo jiten
「頭角をあらわす」と書くこともある。
  Comments:
ngrams are still dead
  Diff:
@@ -15,0 +16,3 @@
+<k_ele>
+<keb>頭角をあらわす</keb>
+</k_ele>
1. A 2017-12-22 08:25:30  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -21,0 +22 @@
+<misc>&id;</misc>

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jmdict 1456990 Active (id: 2221988)
突起 [news1,nf24] 凸起 [rK]
とっき [news1,nf24]
1. [n,vs,vi]
▶ protuberance
▶ projection
▶ prominence
▶ protrusion
▶ bump
▶ boss
▶ process
▶ apophysis

Conjugations


History:
7. A 2023-02-16 00:25:37  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
6. A* 2023-02-15 23:18:24  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Daijr/s, koj, and nikk have 凸起 in its own entry. Shinmeikai and sankoku merge with 突起.

Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーー─┬─────────┬───────╮
│ 突起  │ 476,153 │ 99.5% │
│ 凸起  │   2,415 │  0.5% │ - adding
│ とっき │  31,238 │  N/A  │
╰─ーーー─┴─────────┴───────╯
  Diff:
@@ -7,0 +8,4 @@
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>凸起</keb>
+<ke_inf>&rK;</ke_inf>
5. A 2023-01-05 06:18:41  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
The JEs I checked don't have that gloss so I'll drop it down the list (it's not a new sense.)
  Diff:
@@ -19 +18,0 @@
-<gloss>protrusion</gloss>
@@ -21,0 +21 @@
+<gloss>protrusion</gloss>
4. A* 2023-01-05 06:04:40  Kyle Ong <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
スーパー大辞林
  Comments:
added sense
  Diff:
@@ -18,0 +19 @@
+<gloss>protrusion</gloss>
3. A 2021-11-18 01:19:56  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Meikyo vt and vi additions to n,vs entries
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -16,0 +17 @@
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
(show/hide 2 older log entries)

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jmdict 1459950 Deleted (id: 2222037)
南阿
なんあ
1. [n]
▶ South Africa



History:
2. D 2023-02-16 21:58:20  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. D* 2023-02-16 20:14:47  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Merged with 2735000.

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jmdict 1474240 Active (id: 2222023)
[spec2,news2,nf40]
はく [spec2,news2,nf40]
1. [n]
▶ count
▶ earl
2. [n] [hist]
▶ chief official of the Department of Worship (under the ritsuryō system)
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1765180 神祇官 2. Department of Worship (under the ritsuryō system)
3. [n] [abbr]
▶ Brazil
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1113730 伯剌西爾【ブラジル】 1. Brazil



History:
10. A 2023-02-16 19:31:38  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
9. A* 2023-02-16 19:16:48  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Style alignment.
I don't think the archaic sense is needed. Daijs doesn't have it.
  Diff:
@@ -24 +24,2 @@
-<gloss>chief official of the Department of Worship</gloss>
+<misc>&hist;</misc>
+<gloss>chief official of the Department of Worship (under the ritsuryō system)</gloss>
@@ -28,7 +28,0 @@
-<misc>&arch;</misc>
-<gloss>eldest brother</gloss>
-</sense>
-<sense>
-<pos>&n;</pos>
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
@@ -38 +31,0 @@
-<gloss>Brazilian</gloss>
8. A 2013-04-07 10:56:33  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Fix messy xref.
  Diff:
@@ -24,2 +24,0 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1765180">神祇官・1</xref>
-<xref type="see" seq="1765180">神祇官・2</xref>
7. A 2012-10-02 02:41:30  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -24,1 +24,2 @@
-<xref type="see">神祇官</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1765180">神祇官・1</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1765180">神祇官・2</xref>
6. A* 2012-09-26 04:58:01  Marcus
  Comments:
I think n,n-pref,n-suf might be better, not least because they 
can be used by themselves. ("欧と米" 340,000 "米と欧" 34,900)
  Diff:
@@ -24,1 +24,1 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1765180">神祇官・2</xref>
+<xref type="see">神祇官</xref>
@@ -33,2 +33,3 @@
-<pos>&pref;</pos>
-<pos>&suf;</pos>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
+<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
(show/hide 5 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1571050 Active (id: 2277550)
にべも無い [sK]
にべもないニベもない (nokanji)
1. [exp,adj-i] [uk]
▶ curt
▶ point-blank
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2857435 鰾膠【にべ】 2. amiability; friendliness; graciousness; flattery

Conjugations


History:
5. A 2023-09-20 10:00:08  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -5,0 +6 @@
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
4. A 2023-02-16 00:20:22  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-02-16 00:03:23  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
{にべ/ニベ/鰾膠/膠/鮸膠/鮸}も{無い/ない}

Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーーー─┬───────┬───────╮
│ にべもない │ 5,346 │ 82.5% │ - sankoku, gg5
│ にべも無い │   574 │  8.9% │ - meikyo
│ ニベもない │   412 │  6.4% │
│ 膠も無い  │    98 │  1.5% │ - jitsuyou
│ ニベも無い │    47 │  0.7% │ - jitsuyou
│ 膠もない  │     0 │  0.0% │ - jitsuyou
│ 鰾膠も無い │     0 │  0.0% │ - daijs, jitsuyou
│ 鰾膠もない │     0 │  0.0% │ - nikk, obunsha
│ 鮸膠も無い │     0 │  0.0% │ - daijr, koj
│ 鮸膠もない │     0 │  0.0% │
│ 鮸も無い  │     0 │  0.0% │ - shinmeikai
│ 鮸もない  │     0 │  0.0% │
├─ーーーーー─┼───────┼───────┤
│ にべもなく │ 7,465 │ 85.1% │
│ にべも無く │   894 │ 10.2% │
│ ニベもなく │   374 │  4.3% │
│ 膠もなく  │     0 │  0.0% │
│ ニベも無く │    40 │  0.5% │
│ 膠も無く  │     0 │  0.0% │
│ 鰾膠も無く │     0 │  0.0% │
│ 鰾膠もなく │     0 │  0.0% │
│ 鮸膠も無く │     0 │  0.0% │
│ 鮸膠もなく │     0 │  0.0% │
│ 鮸も無く  │     0 │  0.0% │
│ 鮸もなく  │     0 │  0.0% │
╰─ーーーーー─┴───────┴───────╯
  Comments:
The top 3 forms gets us about about 99% coverage.

sankoku:
  「にべ(鰾膠)」は、海産魚ニベの うきぶくろから作る にかわ

It doesn't look like we have an entry for にべ with this meaning. Rather than listing all the different kanji forms (鰾膠/膠/鮸膠/鮸) here, maybe we could make a new entry for them.

There are two example sentences, both indexed to 膠も無い
  Diff:
@@ -5,4 +5 @@
-<keb>膠もない</keb>
-</k_ele>
-<k_ele>
-<keb>膠も無い</keb>
+<keb>にべも無い</keb>
@@ -11,0 +9,4 @@
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
+<reb>ニベもない</reb>
+<re_nokanji/>
2. A 2015-11-24 07:46:16  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2015-11-23 18:58:06  luce
  Diff:
@@ -5 +5 @@
-<keb>膠も無い</keb>
+<keb>膠もない</keb>
@@ -8 +8 @@
-<keb>膠もない</keb>
+<keb>膠も無い</keb>
@@ -13,0 +14 @@
+<pos>&exp;</pos>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1578500 Rejected (id: 2284783)
古文書 [news1,nf19]
こもんじょ [news1,nf19] こぶんしょ [ik]
1. [n]
▶ historical document
▶ archives
▶ old manuscript
▶ paleograph
2. [n]
《paleography term》
▶ pre-Meiji era document addressed to someone in particular
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1583840 文書 2. document addressed to someone
  ⇐ see: 2746270 古記録【こきろく】 1. historical document written without a particular addressee (e.g. a diary)

History:
11. R 2023-11-30 15:32:32  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Not ik if it's in several dictionaries. (alsoin Shinjirin)
10. A* 2023-11-30 12:04:44 
  Refs:
meikyo, shinkoku
daijr and gg5 redirect to こもんじょ
  Diff:
@@ -15,0 +16 @@
+<re_inf>&ik;</re_inf>
9. A 2023-02-17 13:46:32  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -26 +26 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1583840">文書・ぶんしょ・2</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1583840">文書・2</xref>
8. A 2023-02-16 06:24:30  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5, Diajirin and Shinjirin all have こぶんしょ without mention of a mistake. Best not to flag it.
  Diff:
@@ -16 +15,0 @@
-<re_inf>&ik;</re_inf>
7. A* 2023-02-16 06:04:55  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
meikyo: 「こぶんしょ」と読むのは誤り。
  Diff:
@@ -15,0 +16 @@
+<re_inf>&ik;</re_inf>
(show/hide 6 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1578500 Active (id: 2284814)
古文書 [news1,nf19]
こもんじょ [news1,nf19] こぶんしょ
1. [n]
▶ historical document
▶ archives
▶ old manuscript
▶ paleograph
2. [n]
《paleography term》
▶ pre-Meiji era document addressed to someone in particular
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1583840 文書【もんじょ】 2. document addressed to someone
  ⇐ see: 2746270 古記録【こきろく】 1. historical document written without a particular addressee (e.g. a diary)



History:
12. A 2023-11-30 22:10:14  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
11. A* 2023-11-30 20:23:22  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Since sense 02 of 文書 only applies to もんじょ, I think we should include the reading in the <xref> element.
(My "app" always applies furigana to cross-referenced terms regardless of whether the reading is specified in the <xref> element, but it just naively fetches the first reading from the cross-referenced entry if it isn't specified)
  Diff:
@@ -26 +26 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1583840">文書・2</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1583840">文書・もんじょ・2</xref>
10. A 2023-11-30 18:43:48  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
In addition to meikyo, shinsen kokugo also describes こぶんしょ as an あやまり.
こぶんしょ isn't mentioned in the NHK accent dictionary, sankoku, iwakoku, smk, etc.
  Comments:
I suspect こぶんしょ is recorded in daijirin, gg5, etc. in order to assist user lookups rather than to endorse it as a valid reading.
9. A 2023-02-17 13:46:32  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -26 +26 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1583840">文書・ぶんしょ・2</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1583840">文書・2</xref>
8. A 2023-02-16 06:24:30  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5, Diajirin and Shinjirin all have こぶんしょ without mention of a mistake. Best not to flag it.
  Diff:
@@ -16 +15,0 @@
-<re_inf>&ik;</re_inf>
(show/hide 7 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1597040 Active (id: 2222015)
立つ [ichi1,news1,nf21]
たつ [ichi1,news1,nf21]
1. [v5t,vi]
▶ to stand (up)
▶ to rise
▶ to get to one's feet
▶ to stand on end (e.g. of hairs)
▶ to stick up
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2100730 勃つ【たつ】 1. to have an erection; to become erect
  ⇐ see: 2673740 おっ立つ【おったつ】 1. to stand (up); to rise; to stick up
2. [v5t,vi]
▶ to stand (in a position; of a person, tree, building, etc.)
▶ to be situated (in, on)
3. [v5t,vi]
▶ to be (in difficulties, the lead, etc.)
▶ to put oneself (in a position or situation)
▶ to take up (a position, post, etc.)
▶ to position oneself
4. [v5t,vi]
▶ to leave (to do something)
5. [v5t,vi]
《oft. written as 発つ》
▶ to depart (on a journey, trip, etc.)
▶ to leave
▶ to set off
▶ to start
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2857436 発つ【たつ】 1. to depart (on a journey, trip, etc.); to leave; to set off; to start
6. [v5t,vi]
▶ to get stuck (into; of an arrow, thorn etc.)
▶ to pierce
7. [v5t,vi]
▶ to develop (of a haze, waves, etc.)
▶ to form (of steam, bubbles, etc.)
▶ to appear (of a rainbow, clouds, etc.)
▶ to rise (of smoke, waves, etc.)
▶ to begin to blow (of a wind, breeze, etc.)
8. [v5t,vi]
▶ to spread (of a rumour, reputation, etc.)
▶ to be become widely known
9. [v5t,vi]
▶ to stand (for election)
▶ to run
10. [v5t,vi]
《also written as 起つ》
▶ to take action
▶ to act
▶ to rise (up)
▶ to rouse oneself
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 1223700 起つ【たつ】 1. to take action; to act; to rise (up); to rouse oneself
11. [v5t,vi]
▶ to be established (of a policy, plan, objective, etc.)
▶ to be formed
12. [v5t,vi]
▶ to be valid (of an argument, logic, etc.)
▶ to hold up
▶ to hold water
▶ to stand up (e.g. of evidence)
▶ to be logical
▶ to be reasonable
13. [v5t,vi]
▶ to be sustained (of a living, business, etc.)
▶ to be maintained
▶ to survive
▶ to be preserved (of one's reputation, honour, etc.)
▶ to be saved
14. [v5t,vi]
▶ to start (of a season)
▶ to begin
15. [v5t,vi]
▶ to be held (of a market)
16. [v5t,vi]
▶ to shut (of a door, shoji, etc.)
▶ to be shut
▶ to be closed
17. [v5t,vi]
▶ to be (the result of a division)

Conjugations


History:
8. A 2023-02-16 18:30:54  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I managed to find sentences for 10 of the senses. None for senses 12 and 13, unfortunately.
  Diff:
@@ -36 +36,2 @@
-<gloss>to take up (a position, post, etc.) to position oneself</gloss>
+<gloss>to take up (a position, post, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to position oneself</gloss>
7. A 2023-02-16 00:51:03  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I've created a 発つ entry. We could do with reindexing now.
6. A* 2023-02-14 23:43:14  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5, prog, daij, meikyo
  Comments:
I've added quite a few more.
発つ only applies to one sense. We should have a separate entry for it, like in daijr/s.
  Diff:
@@ -10,3 +9,0 @@
-<k_ele>
-<keb>発つ</keb>
-</k_ele>
@@ -20 +16,0 @@
-<stagk>立つ</stagk>
@@ -23 +19 @@
-<gloss>to stand</gloss>
+<gloss>to stand (up)</gloss>
@@ -25,7 +21,3 @@
-<gloss>to stand up</gloss>
-</sense>
-<sense>
-<stagk>立つ</stagk>
-<pos>&v5t;</pos>
-<pos>&vi;</pos>
-<gloss>to find oneself (e.g. in a difficult position)</gloss>
+<gloss>to get to one's feet</gloss>
+<gloss>to stand on end (e.g. of hairs)</gloss>
+<gloss>to stick up</gloss>
@@ -36,2 +28,2 @@
-<s_inf>usu. 発つ</s_inf>
-<gloss>to depart (on a plane, train, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to stand (in a position; of a person, tree, building, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to be situated (in, on)</gloss>
@@ -42,3 +34,3 @@
-<gloss>to stand up straight</gloss>
-<gloss>to stick out</gloss>
-<gloss>to protrude</gloss>
+<gloss>to be (in difficulties, the lead, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to put oneself (in a position or situation)</gloss>
+<gloss>to take up (a position, post, etc.) to position oneself</gloss>
@@ -49,3 +41 @@
-<gloss>to develop</gloss>
-<gloss>to appear</gloss>
-<gloss>to arise</gloss>
+<gloss>to leave (to do something)</gloss>
@@ -55,0 +46,37 @@
+<s_inf>oft. written as 発つ</s_inf>
+<gloss>to depart (on a journey, trip, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to leave</gloss>
+<gloss>to set off</gloss>
+<gloss>to start</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to get stuck (into; of an arrow, thorn etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to pierce</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to develop (of a haze, waves, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to form (of steam, bubbles, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to appear (of a rainbow, clouds, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to rise (of smoke, waves, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to begin to blow (of a wind, breeze, etc.)</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to spread (of a rumour, reputation, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to be become widely known</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to stand (for election)</gloss>
+<gloss>to run</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<s_inf>also written as 起つ</s_inf>
@@ -56,0 +84,2 @@
+<gloss>to act</gloss>
+<gloss>to rise (up)</gloss>
@@ -62 +91,44 @@
-<gloss>to stand for election</gloss>
+<gloss>to be established (of a policy, plan, objective, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to be formed</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to be valid (of an argument, logic, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to hold up</gloss>
+<gloss>to hold water</gloss>
+<gloss>to stand up (e.g. of evidence)</gloss>
+<gloss>to be logical</gloss>
+<gloss>to be reasonable</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to be sustained (of a living, business, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to be maintained</gloss>
+<gloss>to survive</gloss>
+<gloss>to be preserved (of one's reputation, honour, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to be saved</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to start (of a season)</gloss>
+<gloss>to begin</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to be held (of a market)</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to shut (of a door, shoji, etc.)</gloss>
+<gloss>to be shut</gloss>
+<gloss>to be closed</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to be (the result of a division)</gloss>
5. A* 2023-02-11 01:16:41  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5:
1. stand; stand up; rise;..
2: be 《in a difficult situation》; stand; find oneself 《in difficulties》...
3. start; leave; depart; set off; set out
4: stand 「up straight [erect, upright]; get stuck into…
5: develop; appear; rise; come; start; break; arise
6: act; take action; rouse oneself
7:run [stand] (for 《election, a district》
8: 〔あらわである・明示される〕
9: be formed; be laid; be established; be worked out
10: 割り算で
11: 〔技能がある〕
12: be 「shut [closed].
  Comments:
More senses. Could be more...
  Diff:
@@ -38,0 +39,25 @@
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to stand up straight</gloss>
+<gloss>to stick out</gloss>
+<gloss>to protrude</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to develop</gloss>
+<gloss>to appear</gloss>
+<gloss>to arise</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to take action</gloss>
+<gloss>to rouse oneself</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&v5t;</pos>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<gloss>to stand for election</gloss>
+</sense>
4. A 2012-12-18 00:43:18  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -36,1 +36,2 @@
-<gloss>(usu. 発つ) to depart (on a plane, train, etc.)</gloss>
+<s_inf>usu. 発つ</s_inf>
+<gloss>to depart (on a plane, train, etc.)</gloss>
(show/hide 3 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1598060 Active (id: 2221987)
具に備に悉に [rK] 具さに [sK]
つぶさに
1. [adv] [uk]
▶ in detail
▶ with great care
▶ completely
▶ fully



History:
6. A 2023-02-16 00:22:07  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
5. A* 2023-02-15 23:14:36  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーー─┬─────────┬───────╮
│ 具に   │ 244,998 │ 59.3% │
│ 備に   │  22,838 │  5.5% │
│ 悉に   │     689 │  0.2% │ - rK (daijs, koj, meikyo)
│ 具さに  │     984 │  0.2% │ - adding (sankoku)
│ 備さに  │      64 │  0.0% │
│ 悉さに  │       0 │  0.0% │
│ つぶさに │ 143,468 │ 34.7% │
╰─ーーーー─┴─────────┴───────╯
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12,5 @@
+<ke_inf>&rK;</ke_inf>
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>具さに</keb>
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
4. A 2017-05-28 23:10:24  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
all dicts, google hits
  Diff:
@@ -8 +8 @@
-<keb>悉に</keb>
+<keb>備に</keb>
@@ -11 +11 @@
-<keb>備に</keb>
+<keb>悉に</keb>
3. A* 2017-05-28 18:37:29  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5
  Comments:
I can't see where "again and again" came from.
  Diff:
@@ -22 +22 @@
-<gloss>again and again</gloss>
+<gloss>fully</gloss>
2. A 2015-03-09 10:06:03  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -17,0 +18 @@
+<misc>&uk;</misc>
(show/hide 1 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1682680 Active (id: 2221989)
金轡金ぐつわ
かなぐつわ
1. [n] [rare]
▶ metal bit
▶ metal mouthpiece
▶ metal gag
2. [n] [rare]
▶ hush money



History:
4. A 2023-02-16 00:26:08  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-02-15 23:37:36 
  Refs:
ngrams
  Diff:
@@ -14,0 +15 @@
+<misc>&rare;</misc>
@@ -20,0 +22 @@
+<misc>&rare;</misc>
2. A 2023-02-15 05:28:35  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
中辞 has hush money too.
1. A* 2023-02-15 02:46:39  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
koj and obunsha have a second sense.
  ②口止めとして渡す金銭。
koj, sankoku, iwakoku, and meikyo also have this sense as an expression.
  金ぐつわをはめる
  おかねの力で口どめをする。

Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーーー─┬───╮
│ 金轡    │ 0 │
│ 金ぐつわ  │ 0 │ - adding (sankoku, jitenon)
│ かなぐつわ │ 0 │
╰─ーーーーー─┴───╯
  Diff:
@@ -5,0 +6,3 @@
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>金ぐつわ</keb>
@@ -12 +15,7 @@
-<gloss>a (metal) bit</gloss>
+<gloss>metal bit</gloss>
+<gloss>metal mouthpiece</gloss>
+<gloss>metal gag</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<gloss>hush money</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 1734140 Active (id: 2222655)
秋霜
しゅうそうあきしも
1. [n]
▶ autumn frost
▶ fall frost
2. (しゅうそう only) [n]
▶ harshness
▶ strictness
▶ rigour
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1734150 秋霜烈日 1. harshness; severity
3. (しゅうそう only) [n]
▶ white hair
▶ grey hair
4. (しゅうそう only) [n]
▶ sharp sword



History:
5. A 2023-02-24 05:03:28  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
4. A* 2023-02-24 00:06:51  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Meikyo has the other senses.
  Diff:
@@ -21,2 +21,4 @@
-<misc>&arch;</misc>
-<gloss>strict judgment</gloss>
+<xref type="see" seq="1734150">秋霜烈日</xref>
+<gloss>harshness</gloss>
+<gloss>strictness</gloss>
+<gloss>rigour</gloss>
@@ -27 +28,0 @@
-<misc>&arch;</misc>
@@ -28,0 +30 @@
+<gloss>grey hair</gloss>
@@ -33 +34,0 @@
-<misc>&arch;</misc>
3. A 2023-02-22 05:25:09  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Quiet. Closing.
2. A* 2023-02-16 03:46:23  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Daijrin (has  あきしも reading)
  Comments:
Adding other senses from the kokugos. I'm assuming they're archaic.
  Diff:
@@ -17,0 +18,18 @@
+<sense>
+<stagr>しゅうそう</stagr>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<misc>&arch;</misc>
+<gloss>strict judgment</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<stagr>しゅうそう</stagr>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<misc>&arch;</misc>
+<gloss>white hair</gloss>
+</sense>
+<sense>
+<stagr>しゅうそう</stagr>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<misc>&arch;</misc>
+<gloss>sharp sword</gloss>
+</sense>
1. A* 2023-02-15 17:36:42  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
【秋霜】
https://kotobank.jp/word/秋霜-527113
しゅう‐そう シウサウ【秋霜】
...
あき‐しも【秋霜】
〘名〙 =あき(秋)の霜①
※俳諧・季引席用集(1818)「秋に後るる 九月末〈略〉秋霜 九」
精選版 日本国語大辞典「秋霜」の解説

秋霜
https://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/秋霜
秋 霜 (しゅうそう、あきしも)
秋の霜。

あきしも
https://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/秋霜
秋に降りる霜。

(the *only* reference for 秋霜 on furigana.info)
https://furigana.info/w/秋霜:あきしも
秋霜(あきしも)の下りた山国のあさは、都の冬よりはまだ寒い。白い息が人の鼻さきに凍りそうだ。

Early 1900s, the reference at furigana.info appears to be a text of sufficient note to get a decent-sized wikipedia page and a series of short films, in any case
神州天馬侠』(しんしゅうてんまきょう)は、吉川英治初期の少年冒険小説。1925年(大正14年)5月から1928年(昭和3年)12月まで講談社『少年倶楽部』に連載された長編小説である。現行は講談社文庫版の吉川英治歴史時代文庫全3巻。
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/神州天馬侠


There was apparently a military destroyer of some note that went by this name 秋霜(駆逐艦 あきしも)
秋霜 (駆逐艦)
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/秋霜_(駆逐艦)
Japanese destroyer Akishimo
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_destroyer_Akishimo

Plastic model (one of many):
http://www.hasegawa-model.co.jp/product/467/

Same battleship personified as an anime character:
https://wikiwiki.jp/kancolle/秋霜

Google N-gram Corpus Counts
春霜	2244. (no battleship)
しゅんそう	11243
はるしも	26
秋霜	5171 (has a battleship named after it)
しゅうそう	17099
あきしも	118
早霜	1087 (has a battleship)
はやじも	61 ("classical"/correct reading)
はやしも	915 (battleship name)
  Comments:
Making this suggestion because of the incongruity with 春霜, where the reading はるしも was added in 2013. I imagine the use cases for しゅんそう・はるしも and しゅうそう、あきしも are roughly comparable.

It seems like the evidence suggests that しゅうそう is the correct, historical, poetic reading.  But maybe naming a battleship あきしも didn't do the historic reading any favors(though the furigana.info reference predates even that).
  Diff:
@@ -9,0 +10,3 @@
+<r_ele>
+<reb>あきしも</reb>
+</r_ele>

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jmdict 1765180 Active (id: 2222019)
神祇官
じんぎかんかみづかさ [ok] かんづかさ [ok]
1. (じんぎかん only) [n] [obs]
▶ Department of Divinities (1868-1871)
2. [n] [hist]
▶ Department of Worship (under the ritsuryō system)
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1738990 律令制 1. ritsuryō system; ancient East Asian system of centralized governance; in Japan: esp. 7th-10th century
  ⇐ see: 2604200 神祇伯【じんぎはく】 1. head of the Department of Worship
  ⇐ see: 1474240 伯【はく】 2. chief official of the Department of Worship (under the ritsuryō system)



History:
2. A 2023-02-16 19:23:04  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -27 +27 @@
-<misc>&arch;</misc>
+<misc>&hist;</misc>
1. A 2021-11-20 05:42:42  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
ritsuryo conversion
-*- via bulkupd.py -*-
  Diff:
@@ -28 +28 @@
-<gloss>Department of Worship (under the ritsuryo system)</gloss>
+<gloss>Department of Worship (under the ritsuryō system)</gloss>

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jmdict 1938910 Active (id: 2222012)
心拍数 [news2,nf30]
しんぱくすう [news2,nf30]
1. [n]
▶ heart rate
▶ pulse rate



History:
1. A 2023-02-16 11:41:54  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -16 +16 @@
-<gloss>one's heart rate</gloss>
+<gloss>heart rate</gloss>

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2026130 Active (id: 2222042)
西語
せいご
1. [n]
▶ Spanish (language)
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1072980 スペイン語 1. Spanish (language)



History:
2. A 2023-02-16 22:31:00  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12 @@
+<xref type="see" seq="1072980">スペイン語</xref>
1. A 2004-11-17 00:00:00 
  Comments:
Entry created

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jmdict 2100980 Active (id: 2222032)

せい
1. [n] {astronomy}
▶ Chinese "star" constellation (one of the 28 mansions)
Cross references:
  ⇔ see: 1751690 星宿 3. Chinese "star" constellation (one of the 28 mansions)
  ⇒ see: 2176790 二十八宿 1. 28 mansions of Chinese astronomy (constellations dividing the ecliptic into 28 positions)
  ⇒ see: 2176850 朱雀 2. seven mansions (Chinese constellations) of the southern heavens
2. [n] [abbr]
▶ Singapore
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1063410 【シンガポール】 1. Singapore



History:
5. A 2023-02-16 20:24:50  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
jwiki: 略称は星が用いられるが、これは、第二次世界大戦前に星加坡、星港、星洲などの漢字表記が用いられたことに因む。
星加坡	78
  Comments:
Style alignment. We don't have 星加坡 on the シンガポール entry but it's probably not worth adding.
  Diff:
@@ -14 +14 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="2176850">朱雀・すざく・2</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="2176850">朱雀・2</xref>
@@ -20,2 +20,2 @@
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1063410">シンガポール</xref>
+<misc>&abbr;</misc>
4. A 2012-10-01 12:00:13  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2012-09-26 04:35:33  Marcus
  Refs:
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/シンガ�%
83%9D%E3%83%BC%E3%83%AB
"漢字表記は新加坡だが、略称では星となる。新だとニュージーランドと同じになり紛ら
わしいのと、以前、音訳で「星港」と表記されていたころの名残である。
http://singapore.keizai.biz/headline/5387/
”星在住の日本人歌手、被災地でライブ-「シンガポール・スピリット」で元気を"
http://www.masui.j.u-tokyo.ac.jp/doc/treaty.htm
"日星(シンガポール)租税条約(平成7年4月17日条約第8号)"
"渡星して" 10,900
日星協定 etc.
  Diff:
@@ -18,0 +18,6 @@
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
+<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
+<gloss>Singapore</gloss>
+</sense>
2. A 2012-05-30 23:08:47  Jean-Luc Leger <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -12,1 +12,4 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1751690">星宿</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1751690">星宿・3</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="2176790">二十八宿</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="2176850">朱雀・すざく・2</xref>
+<field>&astron;</field>
1. A 2006-09-06 00:00:00 
  Comments:
Entry created

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jmdict 2162470 Active (id: 2222043)

どく
1. [n] [abbr]
▶ Germany
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1599200 独逸【ドイツ】 1. Germany



History:
2. A 2023-02-16 22:41:51  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1599200">独逸</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1599200">独逸・ドイツ</xref>
1. A 2007-05-06 00:00:00 
  Comments:
Entry created

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jmdict 2233520 Active (id: 2222031)

1. [n,n-suf] [abbr] {Buddhism}
▶ bhikkhuni (fully ordained nun)
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1731700 比丘尼 1. bhikkhuni (fully ordained Buddhist nun)
2. [n] [abbr]
▶ Indonesia
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1023890 印度尼西亜【インドネシア】 1. Indonesia



History:
5. A 2023-02-16 20:16:00  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -20 +20 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1023890">印度尼西亜</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1023890">印度尼西亜・インドネシア</xref>
4. A 2021-12-01 23:33:34  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -13,0 +14 @@
+<field>&Buddh;</field>
@@ -15 +16 @@
-<gloss>bhikkhuni (fully ordained Buddhist nun)</gloss>
+<gloss>bhikkhuni (fully ordained nun)</gloss>
3. A 2015-06-11 00:26:39  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
not even in my kanwa dictionaries.  according to the weblio link, also internet slang for amazon[.com/.co.jp]
2. A* 2015-06-04 09:55:35  Dan Sunstrum
  Refs:
http://www.weblio.jp/content/尼
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:日尼関係
https://jobs.gaijinpot.com/job/view/job_id/104504/lang/en
  Comments:
No official dictionary sources that I could find, but it seems to be out in the wild. I just received an email where someone used it.
  Diff:
@@ -16,0 +17,6 @@
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1023890">印度尼西亜</xref>
+<misc>&abbr;</misc>
+<gloss>Indonesia</gloss>
+</sense>
1. A 2007-11-18 00:00:00 
  Comments:
Entry created

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jmdict 2260070 Active (id: 2222095)

ずい
1. [n] [abbr,rare]
▶ Sweden
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1067410 瑞典【スウェーデン】 1. Sweden
2. [n] [abbr,rare]
▶ Switzerland
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1067190 瑞西【スイス】 1. Switzerland



History:
7. A 2023-02-17 07:17:40  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
6. A* 2023-02-16 23:04:55  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Style alignment.
みず is archaic for both the senses it applies to. I suggest dropping it so we can simplify the entry.
  Diff:
@@ -8,3 +7,0 @@
-<reb>みず</reb>
-</r_ele>
-<r_ele>
@@ -14 +10,0 @@
-<stagr>みず</stagr>
@@ -16,17 +12 @@
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
-<misc>&arch;</misc>
-<gloss>youth</gloss>
-<gloss>freshness</gloss>
-<gloss>purity</gloss>
-<gloss>luster (lustre)</gloss>
-<gloss>beauty</gloss>
-</sense>
-<sense>
-<pos>&n;</pos>
-<gloss>good omen</gloss>
-</sense>
-<sense>
-<stagr>ずい</stagr>
-<pos>&n;</pos>
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1067410">瑞典・スウェーデン</xref>
@@ -38 +17,0 @@
-<stagr>ずい</stagr>
@@ -40,2 +19 @@
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1067190">瑞西・スイス</xref>
5. A 2012-05-22 11:03:42  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
4. A* 2012-05-22 07:48:33  Marcus
  Refs:
daijs
  Diff:
@@ -12,3 +12,0 @@
-</r_ele>
-<r_ele>
-<reb>すい</reb>
@@ -32,1 +29,1 @@
-<stagr>すい</stagr>
+<stagr>ずい</stagr>
@@ -41,1 +38,1 @@
-<stagr>すい</stagr>
+<stagr>ずい</stagr>
3. A 2012-03-04 02:51:59  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
(show/hide 2 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2419040 Rejected (id: 2225457)
鳥なき里の蝙蝠鳥なき里のコウモリ鳥無き里の蝙蝠鳥なき里のこうもり [sK] 鳥無き里のコウモリ [sK]
とりなきさとのこうもり
1. [exp] [proverb]
▶ in the country of the blind, the one-eyed man is king
▶ [lit] a bat in a village without birds

History:
10. R 2023-03-18 08:10:18  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Closing this fork.
9. A* 2023-03-18 08:05:25  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
GG5 tags it as 【諺】 and most expressions tagged that way we have tagged as [proverb]. Probably many should be tagged as idioms, e.g. "浅瀬に仇波 (あさせにあだなみ) (exp) (proverb) deep rivers move in silence".
I'll raise an issue on the proverb/idiom tagging.
Should this one be glossed differently? I don't think so.
8. A* 2023-03-18 03:36:08  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
imidas example
「こんな会社で出世しても、鳥なき里の蝙蝠(こうもり)みたいで、なんだかむなしいな」
kotowaza-dictionary
彼は自分の部署では王様のように振舞っているそうだ。まるで鳥なき里の蝙蝠だよ。
rabdom tweets
人事面談で「鳥なき里の蝙蝠にならないように気をつけます」って言ったら(何言ってんだこいつ・・・?)みたいな空気になってしまいしょんぼりした。

僕らは所詮は井の中の蛙であり鳥なき里の蝙蝠。
  Comments:
These expressions are always tricky to handle - they are noun phrases but sometimes used in a proverbial way. But I think this should be glossed as an idion and a noun, as it was before Brian's edit.
7. A 2023-03-18 00:13:20  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5: 鳥なき里のこうもり. In the country of the blind, the one-eyed man is king. 【諺】 | A [Playing a] Triton 「of [among] minnows. 【諺】
  Comments:
I think the gloss in GG5, which we had previously, is quite appropriate. The bat/bird gloss is best flagged as literal.
  Diff:
@@ -26,3 +26,3 @@
-<pos>&n;</pos>
-<misc>&id;</misc>
-<gloss>a bat in a village without birds (who boasts of his skills in flying)</gloss>
+<misc>&proverb;</misc>
+<gloss>in the country of the blind, the one-eyed man is king</gloss>
+<gloss g_type="lit">a bat in a village without birds</gloss>
6. A* 2023-03-16 20:05:52  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
鳥なき里の蝙蝠	380	47.1%
鳥なき里のコウモリ	127	15.7%
鳥無き里の蝙蝠	126	15.6%
鳥なき里のこうもり	103	12.8%
鳥無き里のコウモリ	71	8.8%



Quite a good description here
https://dic.pixiv.net/a/鳥なき里の蝙蝠

https://proverb-encyclopedia.com/torinakisatonokoumori/
本当にその分野の優れた人がいないところでは、少し詳しいだけであたかもその分野の専門家のように威張り、偉そうにする人を意味する。
Boasting and acting more intelligent than you are seems to be critical to the meaning.

https://proverb-encyclopedia.com/torinakisatonokoumori/
"For want of a wise man a fool is set in the chair." (please don't use this, no one would know this idiom either)

Folk etymology (unconfirmable)
Chosokabe Motochika, who was active in the Sengoku period with the ambition of conquering Shikoku, was said by Nobunaga Oda to ridicule him for acting arrogant in Shikoku where there is no strong daimyo.

Some twitter insults:
On a politician's performance in Abe's wake
俺に言わせれば、大江健三郎なんてのは鳥なき里の蝙蝠だ。安倍公房が生きてたらノーベル賞なんて取れてなかったろうよ。

Twitterで見かける「開示請求」だの言葉遊びしたり、テクニック披露して学のないような層から崇められているような人、まさに「鳥無き里のコウモリ」😂

この鈴木マサと同じ、緑風会所属の自称保守系が多く、いずれも2015年と比較し2019年市議選で得票数を落としています。マサに「鳥無き里のコウモリ」の産物です。まともな候補者がいないのです。

On a thought-to-be-unqualified person giving medical commentary on corona(television commentator):
医師でもないのにマスコミに持ち上げられた「鳥無き里のコウモリ」みっともない。

Advice to Keio Students (just because you've been successful all your lives, don't be too proud...) 鳥無き里のコウモリである可能性をね。
慶應生、その中でも特に容姿にやんごとなき方々、就活期になると、
「え〜、私、僕、挫折なんて経験したこな〜い」(だって、私はお勉強できるし、顔も良いからモテてきたし、パパママにも怒られた事ないもん)って言う人まぁまぁいるが、
考えて欲しい。

鳥無き里のコウモリである可能性をね。
  Comments:
Had no idea what this meant from the glosses until I dug into it. (I thought maybe the bat was better at catching bugs with no birds around?).  

sankoku: 強いもの、優れたもののないところで、つまらないものが威張る。
This could literally be translated as an [expl] if the [lit] gloss remains unclear.  Of note つまらない and 威張る both have negative connotations. "idiots will boast/think highly of themselves".

It's a parable about not thinking too highly of your abilities.  You don't want to be the bat. To say that someone is a bat in a village without birds is to say that they act like they're smart, or they manage to appear successful to those around them, but they can only succeed in this because people with actual talent are not around.

”a man among the geese when the gander is away” is impressively obscure.  I thought maybe it was a mixed metaphor.  But no, a quote from ~1670 suggesting that a man is no good with women, except in an environment where no other men are around.  In that regard, its quality as an insult is similar.  But I suspect it has no application beyond womanizing, and since the idiom is not known, it's not of much use. 

"In the land of the blind" is often cited as analogous, but the nuance seems completely different.  鳥なき里の蝙蝠 is leveled as an insult to the bat for acting like he's talented, when in fact you'd find more talented birds if you left the village.  The "village" is not the universe( and though there were weak daimyo in Chosokabe Motochika's Shikoku, there were strong daimyo elsewhere in Japan).  In "the land of the blind", the one-eyed man never leaves that land.  That is the end-state, and his talent of sight is legitimately powerful. Being the one-eyed man is, if anything, an enviable position.

I also thought of the "big fish in a small pond" suggested (and discarded) some years back.  The problem there is that it also isn't really an insult.  It describes a situation in which someone gets a shock moving into more competitive waters. "He used to be a big fish in a small pond, but now he's struggling...."  Doesn't imply that the person is "full of them self" or possessing excessive hubris in their small pond.  It's just the reality of their situation.  They may be ignorant of the larger world, but this does not impugn their character.

There are related expressions in Japanese with various animal combinations.  Maybe the second most common (after this one) I could find is about weasels in place without a stronger breed of weasel... 鼬の無き間の貂誇り
自分よりも力の強いものやすぐれたものがいない所で威張ることのたとえ
https://proverb-encyclopedia.com/itatinonakimanotenhokori/

If there's no reasonably-equivalent, reasonably well-understood English idiom, I'd rather not try to force one in.
  Diff:
@@ -7,0 +8,3 @@
+<keb>鳥なき里のコウモリ</keb>
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
@@ -11,0 +15,4 @@
+<ke_inf>&sK;</ke_inf>
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>鳥無き里のコウモリ</keb>
@@ -21,3 +28 @@
-<gloss>a man among the geese when the gander is away</gloss>
-<gloss>a one-eyed king in the land of the blind</gloss>
-<gloss g_type="lit">a bat in a village without birds</gloss>
+<gloss>a bat in a village without birds (who boasts of his skills in flying)</gloss>
(show/hide 5 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2419040 Active (id: 2225499)
鳥なき里の蝙蝠鳥なき里のコウモリ鳥無き里の蝙蝠鳥なき里のこうもり [sK] 鳥無き里のコウモリ [sK]
とりなきさとのこうもり
1. [exp,n] [proverb]
▶ in the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is king
▶ [lit] a bat in a village without birds



History:
12. A 2023-03-18 13:17:32  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
11. A* 2023-03-18 13:17:21  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Brian, I appreciate the effort and time you're investing here but it would be immensely appreciated if you could be (much!) more concise in your arguments. Your edits are, frankly, exhausting to check. 

Explanatory glosses should be explanatory glosses, not explanations, but I'm having a hard time seeing the need for either - I don't quite get what it is that's so puzzling to you about the literal Japanese because it seems very clear to me. I also don't see the issue with "a one-eyed man in the land of the blind", it seems obvious what proverb its a reference to. 

I'm OK with this being glossed as a proverb for now.
  Diff:
@@ -29,2 +29 @@
-<gloss g_type="lit">a bat in a village without birds ( that is treated as a bird for lack of other options )</gloss>
-<gloss g_type="expl">analogy for someone who flaunts a mediocre talent, or (someone, something) that is able to prosper only for lack of competition</gloss>
+<gloss g_type="lit">a bat in a village without birds</gloss>
10. A* 2023-03-18 08:09:28  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I had prepared the following, then forgot to press submit. I now see Brian has made another proposal.
------
GG5 tags it as 【諺】 and most expressions tagged that way we have tagged as [proverb]. Probably many should be tagged as idioms, e.g. "浅瀬に仇波 (あさせにあだなみ) (exp) (proverb) deep rivers move in silence".
I'll raise an issue on the proverb/idiom tagging.
Should this one be glossed differently? I don't think so.
9. A* 2023-03-18 06:38:20  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Use as a noun, without みたい
https://twitter.com/search?q="鳥なき里の蝙蝠だ"&src=typed_query&f=live
俺に言わせれば、大江健三郎なんてのは鳥なき里の蝙蝠だ。
https://twitter.com/kuraha/status/1615656795388923907
鳥なき里の蝙蝠だね長曽我部さん

An idiom two-fer:
https://twitter.com/WgnZ5Qvx3BUYHwY/status/1543829804965036033
④安倍晋三、麻生太郎はど同じ穴の貉だなだ「鳥なき里の蝙蝠」だからだ!⑤に続く

(one of Marcus's examples was also ~だ)
  Comments:
... the [expl] is not tightly worded, you all would probably have better wording than I could produce.  

Agree that this is [n], either directly as 彼は...蝙蝠だ, or as 蝙蝠みたいだ。 There is a good reason that this was originally glossed as the unnatural "a one-eyed king in the land of the blind".

You work in an office of 20 people.  People are generally intelligent, people generally do their jobs well.  People are *not* generally tech savvy though, but one guy in the office "knows computers", and is constantly bragging about his ability to fix/manage/maintain them(even though his skills are rather mediocre).  He's the only "tech guy" in the office, so people put up with it.  He's the bat in a village without birds.

The office workers don't make him king.  They begrudgingly tolerate him in the limited area where they have no choice. (This is reflected in the fact that calling someone a 鳥なき里の蝙蝠 is fundamentally an insult).

Is that in this gloss somewhere?  Is that an "In the land of the blind the one eyed man is king"?

Or, here's a simple one:
https://twitter.com/ba17_Eri/status/1082149051762536448
鳥なき里の蝙蝠みたいな人は嫌いだよ
I hate one-eyed bats in villages without birds.  = I hate one-eyed kings in lands of the blind?

I'm certainly not going to die on the hill of removing the "one-eyed-man" gloss, because I don't think I'll convince you.  It's not as though it's never an appropriate gloss.  It's just that the base nuance is significantly different, and so it is significantly inadequate in communicating what this idiom means, both in the J->E and E->J direction.

Just take Marcus's last example.  A Japanese person as at a job interview says:
"I will try to not become a bat in a village without birds".  

Ok... I, an English speaker, read this on twitter and think "ok, let me look that up....".  Here, it says this means "I will try not to become a one-eyed king in a country of the blind".

What is that supposed to mean, and *why* would a Japanese person even consider saying such a thing in a job interview? 

On top of that, I can say concretely(personal experience) that it is completely unclear what the literal expression is supposed to mean(like I offered earlier, is it about eating lots of bugs?).  But there *is* a meaning, which something like the one I added in parenthesis (or, as imidas explains 鳥として扱われ ~ is treated by the villagers as if he is a bird for lack of other options). And the bat is understood to be completely full of himself for thinking he is such an excellent bird (or so good at flying).   It *doesn't* (inherently) mean the villagers don't know that birds exist.  There just aren't any around.  It is not an inherent slight on the villagers. (thought it seems it could maybe be used as such) If it were a slight against the village, it couldn't be used in an interview, and wouldn't have been used in my Keio University graduation-speech example.

Adding a parenthetical clarification explains the gloss in the J->E direction, and explains the metaphor more completely in the E->J direction to anyone looking it up.  

To Marcus's three example sentences:
「こんな会社で出世しても、鳥なき里の蝙蝠みたいで、なんだかむなしいな」
Even if you get ahead in this company, you'll just look to colleagues like you're exploiting the lack of competition (and thus they will have no respect for you, they'll consider you a 鳥なき里の蝙蝠),  so what's the point.

Or perhaps: you're only getting ahead because there are no talented people in the company, so what's the point.  I'd rather succeed in an environment with intelligent people and competition. (one-eyed man kind-of works if this is the intention)

kotowaza-dictionary
彼は自分の部署では王様のように振舞っているそうだ。まるで鳥なき里の蝙蝠だよ。
Perfect example of what I mean.  The sentence says "彼はまるで蝙蝠だよ". He's arrogant, he thinks he knows everything.  But, in fact, he's an idiot with no one smarter around to challenge him.  It's not a slight against the employees at all ("the land of the blind").   振舞っているそうだ ~ "I've heard from the people who work with/under him that...".

Let's try the English gloss... "He acts like a king in his department, but he's actually a complete one-eyed man in a land of the blind".  ???  Sounds like you're insulting the employees to me.

random tweets
人事面談で「鳥なき里の蝙蝠にならないように気をつけます」って言ったら(何言ってんだこいつ・・・?)みたいな空気になってしまいしょんぼりした。
Who would ever say "I will become careful to not become a king in the land of the blind". Or "I will be careful to not become a one-eyed king".  

It was an interview, and he was literally trying to say:

   "I understand the importance of humility. "

Look at the replies to the thread:
https://twitter.com/RakT1a869LnEHne/status/1432708246247256072
Re: 戦国時代のちょいマイナーネタは思ったより通じないですよね. 
A rather minor story from the warring states period didn't get across as well as you expected, eh.
Re:Re 人事なら知ってるかなと思ったんですがダメでしたね
The were HR (Human Resources), so I thought they'd know (the reference), but I guess not.

Finally:
僕らは所詮は井の中の蛙であり鳥なき里の蝙蝠。
Twitter died before I could find the source, but it seems rather philosophical and self-deprecating ("we are merely...") to me. Searching for 井の中の蛙 and 鳥なき里の蝙蝠 I got following gloss on a Chinese phrase with associated commentary:
https://gogakuru.com/chinese/phrase/19698
“夜郎自大”は身の程をわきまえずに偉そうに振る舞うことのたとえで、日本語では「井の中の蛙」や「鳥なき里のこうもり」に近い意味です。相手を批判・非難する際などによく使われる辛辣な言葉なので、使うときには注意が必要です。
Google:"Yarojidai" is a parable of acting arrogant without knowing one's position, and in Japanese it means something similar to "a frog in a well" or "a bat in a village without birds." It is a harsh word that is often used when criticizing the other person, so you need to be careful when using it.

Here's a case where I thought "one-eyed man" almost worked, but on reflection, there's still a problem
https://twitter.com/MilitantL/status/1603199098517348352
安倍というのは鳥なき里の蝙蝠みたいなものだったが、蝙蝠もいなくなっての見苦しいドタバタ。
Abe was a bat... but now that's he's gone... (was a one eyed king, but now that he's gone...)

Saying Abe "may have been a bat an a village without birds" is saying, "he was an idiot, true, but without even a bat, party's gone to pieces".

If you say that the everyone-is-blind political-party lost their one-eyed king, well, going to pieces is the *expected* outcome.  At least they had someone who could see, of course they would be worse without him.

Well, that's why a removed the one-eyed man gloss.  It's an "obvious" match, but it's very shallow in its application.  Any attempt to substitute one idiom for the other in J->E or E->J is as likely as not to lead to some form of misunderstanding.

Two final thoughts:
1. The English expression seems far more readily understood than the Japanese one (hence the Japanese interview flub). There are pitfalls in aligning widely-known idioms with less-known idioms.
2. As has already been acknowledged, structurally these don't match up at all.  It would be difficult to exchange one for the other without considerable grammatical manipulation.
  Diff:
@@ -25,0 +26 @@
+<pos>&n;</pos>
@@ -27,2 +28,3 @@
-<gloss>in the country of the blind, the one-eyed man is king</gloss>
-<gloss g_type="lit">a bat in a village without birds</gloss>
+<gloss>in the land of the blind, the one-eyed man is king</gloss>
+<gloss g_type="lit">a bat in a village without birds ( that is treated as a bird for lack of other options )</gloss>
+<gloss g_type="expl">analogy for someone who flaunts a mediocre talent, or (someone, something) that is able to prosper only for lack of competition</gloss>
8. A* 2023-03-18 03:36:08  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
imidas example
「こんな会社で出世しても、鳥なき里の蝙蝠(こうもり)みたいで、なんだかむなしいな」
kotowaza-dictionary
彼は自分の部署では王様のように振舞っているそうだ。まるで鳥なき里の蝙蝠だよ。
rabdom tweets
人事面談で「鳥なき里の蝙蝠にならないように気をつけます」って言ったら(何言ってんだこいつ・・・?)みたいな空気になってしまいしょんぼりした。

僕らは所詮は井の中の蛙であり鳥なき里の蝙蝠。
  Comments:
These expressions are always tricky to handle - they are noun phrases but sometimes used in a proverbial way. But I think this should be glossed as an idion and a noun, as it was before Brian's edit.
(show/hide 7 older log entries)

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jmdict 2440560 Active (id: 2273019)

シュシュ
1. [n] Source lang: fre "chouchou"
▶ scrunchie
▶ scrunchy
▶ hair tie covered in fabric



History:
7. A 2023-07-17 22:40:45  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I don't mind a more explanatory gloss being there.
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12 @@
+<gloss>hair tie covered in fabric</gloss>
6. A* 2023-07-17 21:32:28 
  Diff:
@@ -11 +11 @@
-<gloss>hair tie covered in fabric</gloss>
+<gloss>scrunchy</gloss>
5. A 2023-02-16 10:49:45  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
4. A* 2023-02-16 07:34:18  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daijr/s, sankoku
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +9 @@
+<lsource xml:lang="fre">chouchou</lsource>
3. A 2013-03-11 10:32:15  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Correct.
(show/hide 2 older log entries)

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jmdict 2673740 Active (id: 2222047)
おっ立つ押っ立つ [rK]
おったつ
1. [v5t,vi]
《emphatic》
▶ to stand (up)
▶ to rise
▶ to stick up
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1597040 立つ 1. to stand (up); to rise; to get to one's feet; to stand on end (e.g. of hairs); to stick up

Conjugations


History:
4. A 2023-02-17 00:27:16  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-02-16 22:22:44  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daijr, koj
押っ立つ	0
押っ立っ	0
おっ立つ	365
おっ立っ	1546
  Diff:
@@ -4,0 +5,3 @@
+<keb>おっ立つ</keb>
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
@@ -5,0 +9 @@
+<ke_inf>&rK;</ke_inf>
@@ -14 +18,2 @@
-<gloss>to stand</gloss>
+<s_inf>emphatic</s_inf>
+<gloss>to stand (up)</gloss>
@@ -15,0 +21 @@
+<gloss>to stick up</gloss>
2. A 2011-12-31 01:38:16  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -12,1 +12,2 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1597040">立つ</xref>
+<pos>&vi;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1597040">立つ・1</xref>
1. A* 2011-12-30 16:54:40  Scott
  Refs:
daij

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jmdict 2735000 Active (id: 2222036)
南ア南阿 [rK]
なんアみなみア [ik]
1. [n] [abbr]
▶ South Africa
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1459890 南アフリカ 1. South Africa



History:
4. A 2023-02-16 21:58:02  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-02-16 20:14:35  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
南ア	236245	99.6%
南阿	1017	0.4%
  Comments:
Merging 1459950.
  Diff:
@@ -5,0 +6,4 @@
+</k_ele>
+<k_ele>
+<keb>南阿</keb>
+<ke_inf>&rK;</ke_inf>
2. A 2012-08-12 09:39:25  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
Daijr, GG5, etc.
  Comments:
The refs have "なんア". "みなみア" gets some hits too.
This is in Enamdict, so I wonder about replicating it.
  Diff:
@@ -8,0 +8,3 @@
+<reb>なんア</reb>
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
@@ -9,0 +12,1 @@
+<re_inf>&ik;</re_inf>
1. A* 2012-08-11 01:33:50  Marcus
  Refs:
http://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/南ア

saw used on twitter: "しかし毎度思うが、韓国の戦い方には限界を感じる。だか
ら、今回の五輪も勝ち数自体は多くないし、南アW杯でもそれは同様。日本の方がより正し
い道を歩んでいると思う。韓国のフィジカルを生かしたサッカーは日本には有効でも欧州・南
米列強には通用しない。" (@gokuusoccer)

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jmdict 2746830 Active (id: 2222020)

ごう
1. [n] [abbr]
▶ Australia
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1031680 豪太剌利【オーストラリア】 1. Australia



History:
3. A 2023-02-16 19:26:06  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Style alignment.
  Diff:
@@ -15,4 +15 @@
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
-<xref type="see" seq="1031680">オーストラリア</xref>
-<xref type="see" seq="1031680">オーストラリア</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1031680">豪太剌利・オーストラリア</xref>
2. A 2012-10-03 23:33:25  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2012-09-23 05:47:43  Marcus
  Refs:
daijs
  Comments:
I added n-pref and n-suf to the 瑞 for Sweden/Switzerland back 
in May and that went through so I did the same thing here.

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jmdict 2826280 Active (id: 2222942)

ぼく
1. [n] [abbr]
▶ Mexico
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1133090 墨西哥【メキシコ】 1. Mexico
2. [n] [rare]
▶ Mohism
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 2598300 墨家 1. Mohism; Moism
3. [n] [arch]
▶ ink
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1521510 墨 1. sumi; India ink; Chinese ink; ink stick; ink-cake
4. [n] [abbr,hist]
▶ tattooing (as a form of punishment in ancient China)
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1584240 墨刑 1. tattooing (as a form of punishment in ancient China)



History:
10. A 2023-02-27 00:36:45  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
GG5 has 墨刑 so I want to say hist but the abbreviation might be archaic.
  Diff:
@@ -32 +32 @@
-<misc>&arch;</misc>
+<misc>&hist;</misc>
9. A 2023-02-27 00:01:10  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
8. A* 2023-02-26 23:06:32 
  Comments:
Hist or Arch?
  Diff:
@@ -33 +33 @@
-<gloss>tattooing (form of punishment in ancient China)</gloss>
+<gloss>tattooing (as a form of punishment in ancient China)</gloss>
7. A 2023-02-26 17:48:26  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Oops. Thanks.
6. A* 2023-02-26 16:13:30 
  Diff:
@@ -33 +33 @@
-<gloss>tattooing tattooing (form of punishment in ancient China)</gloss>
+<gloss>tattooing (form of punishment in ancient China)</gloss>
(show/hide 5 older log entries)

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jmdict 2826281 Active (id: 2222025)

おう
1. [n] [abbr]
▶ Austria
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1031700 墺太利【オーストリア】 1. Austria



History:
3. A 2023-02-16 19:44:11  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Style alignment.
  Diff:
@@ -12,3 +12 @@
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
-<xref type="see" seq="1031700">オーストリア</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1031700">墺太利・オーストリア</xref>
2. A 2014-12-12 10:17:42  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I wonder how stand-alone these are.
1. A* 2014-12-12 02:51:51  Marcus Richert <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
http://daijirin.dual-d.net/extra/gairaigo.html
daijs (kanwa)
独墺合邦・
普墺戦争

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jmdict 2826950 Active (id: 2222027)

1. [n] [abbr]
▶ Poland
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1124770 波蘭【ポーランド】 1. Poland



History:
3. A 2023-02-16 20:08:49  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Style alignment.
  Diff:
@@ -12,2 +12 @@
-<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
-<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1124770">波蘭・ポーランド</xref>
2. A 2015-03-20 05:31:59  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
We are a bit all over the place with POS & "abbr" tags for these country kanji. Should harmonize them.
  Diff:
@@ -11,0 +12,2 @@
+<pos>&n-suf;</pos>
+<pos>&n-pref;</pos>
1. A* 2015-03-19 13:33:10  Przemysław Buczkowski <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
http://www.edrdg.org/jmdictdb/cgi-bin/entr.py?svc=jmdict&sid=&q=1900150.1
https://deadreckoning8.wordpress.com/2014/02/09/whats-your-countrys-name-in-traditional-japanese-ateji/
https://ja.wiktionary.org/wiki/波#.E9.80.A0.E8.AA.9E.E6.88.90.E5.88.86.E3.83.BB.E7.95.A5.E7.A7.B0

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jmdict 2842571 Active (id: 2222018)

1. [n] [abbr]
▶ Turkey
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1086880 土耳古【トルコ】 1. Turkey; Türkiye



History:
3. A 2023-02-16 19:17:46  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Style alignment.
  Diff:
@@ -11,2 +11,2 @@
-<pos>&unc;</pos>
-<xref type="see" seq="1086880">土耳古・1</xref>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1086880">土耳古・トルコ・1</xref>
2. A 2019-12-31 05:07:50  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2019-12-30 23:56:11  Rene Malenfant <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
shinmeikai
と【土】(造語成分)
【土】
〔もと、ところの意〕
   つち。
[語例]
土地
   (略)
トルコ(土耳古)。⇒ど
  Comments:
split out of ど.  see comments there.

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jmdict 2855239 Active (id: 2222089)
熱可塑性樹脂
ねつかそせいじゅし
1. [n] {chemistry}
▶ thermoplastic resin
▶ thermoplastic
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 1467780 熱可塑樹脂【ねつかそじゅし】 1. thermoplastic resin



History:
7. A 2023-02-17 06:52:56  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I don't mind having that a second gloss.
  Diff:
@@ -13,0 +14 @@
+<gloss>thermoplastic</gloss>
6. A* 2023-02-17 06:26:30  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
thermoplastic:
https://www.ei-navi.jp/dictionary/content/thermoplastic/
名: 熱可塑、熱可塑性樹脂
形: 熱可塑性の

熱可塑性樹脂成形 "Thermoplastic Resin Molding" (translation theirs)
https://nakata-electric.co.jp/works/thermoplastic/

Google
Thermoplastic molding: 15 pages, 137 results
Thermoplastic moulding: 11 pages, 104 results
Thermoplastic resin molding: 4 pages (39 results)
Thermoplastic resin moulding: 3 pages (29 results)

=== Interchangeability of "thermoplastic(s)" and "thermoplastic resin", and a list of types of thermoplastic, including "thermoplastic elastomers"
"Major types of plastics and examples of their use"
https://www.richell.co.jp/en/plastic/plastic01/plastic01_2/
Plastics are broadly divided into *****thermoplastic resins*****, which soften when heated and harden when cooled, and thermosetting resins, which harden when heated.
****Thermoplastics**** soften when heated again, but thermosets, once hardened, do not soften when reheated.

=== On TPR (thermoplastic rubber) and TPE (thermoplastic elastomer), both thermoplastics:
"What is the Difference Between TPR & TPE?"
https://www.zhilico.com/msg/msg24.html
TPE and TPR rubber and plastic materials are both categorized as thermoplastics...

====================
Below example cases where I think thermoplastic = "thermoplastic resin" = 熱可塑性樹脂

Stephens Plastic Mouldings Ltd
https://twitter.com/StephensPlastic/status/1623044172709089280
HDPE (High Density #Polyethylene) is a low-cost #thermoplastic with a linear structure and little or minimal branching. It is an ideal material for a variety of applications.

NOTE: (Definition of HDPE as a resin)
http://www.premierplasticresins.com/hdpe.html
HDPE Polyethylene is a common thermoplastic resin typically used for injection molding applications. 

Key Considerations when 3D Printing with Thermoplastics
https://www.stratasys.com/en/stratasysdirect/resources/articles/3d-printing-thermoplastics-key-considerations

3D Printing Plastics: A comprehensive guide
https://www.3dnatives.com/en/plastics-used-3d-printing110420174
ABS filament is the most commonly used 3D printing plastics. It is used in the bodywork of cars, appliances, and mobile phone cases. It is ***a thermoplastic*** which contains a base of elastomers based on polybutadiene, making it more flexible, and resistant to shocks. 


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_printing_filament
The process of transforming 3D printing filament into a 3D model:
The filament is fed into the FDM 3D printer.
****The thermoplastic**** is heated past their glass transition temperature inside the hotend.
The filament is extruded and deposited by an extrusion head onto a build platform where it cools.
The process is continuous, building up layers to create the model.

Working With Thermoplastic
https://www.flamesofwar.com/hobby.aspx?art_id=6933
With the release of D-Day: British comes the first of our Thermoplastic figures, the British Airborne. 
Since Thermoplastic is a relatively new technology, and as working with it is slightly different to any of our other plastic figures, it’s worth taking you through a few primers on how Thermoplastic behaves and how you can get the most out of our new figures.

https://www.iqsdirectory.com/articles/plastic-injection-molding/thermoplastic-molding.html
Thermoplastic molding is a manufacturing process that works to create fully functional parts by injecting plastic resin into a pre-made mold. Thermoplastic polymers are more widely used than thermosetting polymers in injection molding. The main reason is that thermoplastics can be repeatedly softened by heating and solidified by cooling, making them highly recyclable materials. Materials left over from a previous molding process cycle are re-grinded and added back to the injection chamber along with virgin pellets.

Definition of Thermoplastic Molding
https://www.rydtooling.com/thermoplastic-molding-an-overview/
Thermoplastic injection molding is a production method that uses plastic resin to insert into a pre-made mold to generate completely functional parts...

Here are some search results for Bridgestone + "thermoplastic"
* In addition, the spoke structure within the tyre is made from reusable thermoplastic resin
* Recently at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas — use a recycled thermoplastic "web" as their ...
* The combination of two spokes,... enables the thermoplastic spokes to flex effectively without twisting.
* Bridgestone designs and manufactures a wide range of rubber, thermoplastic, spiral and braided hose for hydraulic, automotive, air-conditioning and industrial applications
* According to Bridgestone, the thermoplastic resins the spokes and rubbers are comprised of “help realize more efficient use of resources.”.
* Bridgestone's design uses thermoplastic ribs, which it says are easier to recycle than the thermoset rubber used in more conventional tyres.
* Similar to Michelin's tweels, Bridgestone has cooked up some air-free concept tires that use a tough but flexible thermoplastic structure...
  Comments:
With the growing popularity of 3D printing using various plastic filaments, I think the term "thermoplastic" has become ever-so-slightly more mainstream. Granted, acronyms for specific thermoplastics, like ABS and PLA, are infinitely more common.

In industrial scenarios, English-speakers seem perfectly happy to drop the word "resin" from "thermoplastic resin"(or, perhaps more likely, not consider "resin" at all, which may be why the wikipedia article omits the word).

All of this said, it is hard to find 1-to-1 uses of "thermoplastic"[noun] with much of anything in Japanese. 熱可塑性エラストマー(elastomer/TPE) seems somewhat more common in marketing, which is a more-specific category of thermoplastic[resin]. I've seen 熱可塑性のプラスチック and 熱可塑性プラスチック, katakana サーモプラスチック, TPE(e=elastomer), TPR(r=rubber), サーモプラスチック・ガム, サーモプラスチック・ラバー...
5. A* 2023-02-16 09:59:46  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
https://ahdictionary.com/word/search.html?q=thermoplastic

ther·mo·plas·tic  (thûr′mə-plăstĭk)
adj.
Becoming soft when heated and hard when cooled.
n.
A thermoplastic resin, such as polystyrene or polyethylene.

Collins English Dictionary
https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/thermoplastic
thermoplastic (among other included definitions)
in British English
(ˌθɜːməʊˈplæstɪk IPA Pronunciation Guide)
ADJECTIVE
1. (of a material, esp a synthetic plastic or resin) becoming soft when heated and rehardening on cooling without appreciable change of properties Compare thermosetting
NOUN
2. a synthetic plastic or resin, such as polystyrene, with these properties
  Comments:
While agree that it is harmless  (and perhaps desirable) to translate 熱可塑性樹脂 as "thermoplastic resin" in the J->E direction, my concern is the E->J effort to translate the English "thermoplastic"[noun], as used in the Wikipedia headword.  It appears to me that the proper English translation of "thermoplastic"[noun] to Japanese is 熱可塑性樹脂, and I don't see any other candidate Japanese words in this dictionary or anywhere else.

I've included references that define "thermoplastic" as "a thermoplastic resin" and "a synthetic plastic or resin, such as polystyrene, with [the properties of being thermoplastic]"
4. A 2023-02-15 23:12:20  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
JEs.
  Comments:
It's 熱可塑性+樹脂. I think the "resin" is needed.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12,2 @@
-<gloss>thermoplastic, thermoplastic resin</gloss>
+<field>&chem;</field>
+<gloss>thermoplastic resin</gloss>
3. A* 2023-02-15 05:02:12  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoplastic
cross references to this entry:
熱可塑性樹脂
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/熱可塑性樹脂
  Comments:
See comments on 熱可塑 
http://www.edrdg.org/jmdictdb/cgi-bin/entr.py?svc=jmdict&sid=&q=1467770.1

The current entries in jmdictdb make it look like "熱可塑" is the word for "thermoplastic"[n], and that 熱可塑性樹脂 is some particular special kind of resin related to it.  

Instead, it appears that "thermoplastic resin" and "thermoplastic"(as a noun) are synonyms in English.  Resins are usually liquids, but because a thermoplastic returns to a soft/liquid state when heated, then hardens when cooled, there is no distinction between the plastic and the resin.  "In the wild" in Japanese, it is clear that 熱可塑性樹脂 is vastly more common than 熱可塑 alone, which seems to be in line with it being the actual analogue to plain-old "thermoplastic".

This is a kind of neat derivation... Like "plastic"(adj) meaning "moldable", thermoplastic originates as an adjective "moldable when heated", which is precisely (熱(可塑))性, which would seem to be the reason that in Japanese you need a noun 熱可塑性(樹脂), since it isn't as if  可塑 = プラスチック on its own... is it?

I just searched 可塑 in jmdictdb, and the definition seems to be plastic[n].  Not sure about that....
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12 @@
-<gloss>thermoplastic resin</gloss>
+<gloss>thermoplastic, thermoplastic resin</gloss>
(show/hide 2 older log entries)

View entry in alternate formats: jel | edict | jmdict xml | jmnedict xml | jmdictdb xml
jmdict 2857319 Active (id: 2221990)
燃料費調整
ねんりょうひちょうせい
1. [n]
▶ fuel cost adjustment (system)
▶ [expl] adjustment of monthly electricity charges according to the import prices of raw materials (crude oil, LNG and coal)
Cross references:
  ⇐ see: 2857320 燃調費【ねんちょうひ】 1. (monthly) electricity (or gas) usage charge (calculated using the adjusted unit rate)



History:
4. A 2023-02-16 00:27:18  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
3. A* 2023-02-16 00:20:37  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/category/electricity_and_gas/electric/fee/fuel_cost_adjustment_001/
https://www.enecho.meti.go.jp/category/electricity_and_gas/gas/materialcost_adjustment_001/
https://looop-denki.com/home/denkinavi/energy/electricity-en/fuelcostadjustment/
"燃料費調整制度とは、火力発電に用いる燃料(原油・液化天然ガス・石炭)の価格変動を、毎月の電気料金に反映させる仕組みのことです。"
原料費調整	3280	  
原料費調整制度	2319
  Comments:
It seems that the 燃料費調整制度 only applies to electricity bills. The equivalent system for gas is 原料費調整制度.
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss g_type="expl">adjustment of electricity and gas prices according to the import prices of raw materials</gloss>
+<gloss g_type="expl">adjustment of monthly electricity charges according to the import prices of raw materials (crude oil, LNG and coal)</gloss>
2. A 2023-02-10 22:21:33  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
It was rather opaque without some expansion.
  Diff:
@@ -12,0 +13 @@
+<gloss g_type="expl">adjustment of electricity and gas prices according to the import prices of raw materials</gloss>
1. A* 2023-01-28 02:05:34  Nicolas Maia
  Refs:
https://kotobank.jp/word/燃料費調整制度-190186
https://ejje.weblio.jp/content/燃料費調整制度
  Comments:
燃料費調整制度	1341	22.1%
燃料費調整	4733	77.9%

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jmdict 2857320 Active (id: 2221991)
燃調費
ねんちょうひ
1. [n]
▶ (monthly) electricity (or gas) usage charge (calculated using the adjusted unit rate)
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 2857319 燃料費調整 1. fuel cost adjustment (system); adjustment of monthly electricity charges according to the import prices of raw materials (crude oil, LNG and coal)



History:
4. A 2023-02-16 00:32:32  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
燃料費調整額	704
燃料費調整	4733
燃料費調整制度	1341	  
燃料費調整単価	1028
  Comments:
Since we have 燃料費調整 as an entry, I'm not sure 燃料費調整額 is needed.
3. A* 2023-02-15 23:07:28  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
https://home.tokyo-gas.co.jp/gas_power/plan/power/adjustment.html
燃料費調整額は、各月の燃料費調整単価に使用電力量を乗じて算定します。
  Comments:
I think it needs more detail.
We should also have an entry for 燃料費調整額, which is the usual term that appears on bills. I'm not sure if 燃調費 is considered an abbreviation.
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>adjustment cost of gas and electricity prices</gloss>
+<gloss>(monthly) electricity (or gas) usage charge (calculated using the adjusted unit rate)</gloss>
2. A* 2023-02-10 22:35:38  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I think this is a little clearer. It's a complex matter.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12,2 @@
-<gloss>fuel adjustment cost</gloss>
+<xref type="see" seq="2857319">燃料費調整</xref>
+<gloss>adjustment cost of gas and electricity prices</gloss>
1. A* 2023-01-28 02:08:22  Nicolas Maia
  Refs:
https://octopusenergy.co.jp/blogs/fuel-adjustment-cost
https://cs.myjcom.jp/knowledgeDetail?an=003829224 地域電力会社や他の新電力も燃調費の上限を撤廃しているのか?

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jmdict 2857374 Active (id: 2222024)

セムスねじ
1. [n]
▶ SEMS screw



History:
3. A 2023-02-16 19:34:34  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Harmless, I guess.
2. A* 2023-02-06 02:05:31  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
セムスねじ	26
セムス螺子	0
Low Googits
  Comments:
Common enough to include? I think it's rather marginal.
1. A* 2023-02-06 00:15:15 
  Refs:
https://www.urk.co.jp/contents/elements/element28.html
https://fastener-parts.com/column/セムスねじとは?座金組み込みねじの特徴につい/
https://www.usmicroscrew.com/2019/12/03/the-advantages-of-using-sems-screws/
https://www.mcmaster.com/sems-screws/
  Comments:
Not sure whether SEMS should be capitalized but seems to be orginally a company's product name.

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jmdict 2857434 Active (id: 2224093)
WHO
ダブリュー・エイチ・オーダブリュー・エッチ・オー [sk] ダブリューエイチオー [sk] ダブリューエッチオー [sk]
1. [n]
▶ World Health Organization
▶ WHO
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1373950 世界保健機関 1. World Health Organization; WHO



History:
3. A 2023-03-09 02:46:06  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5, etc.
  Comments:
Style update
  Diff:
@@ -8,6 +7,0 @@
-<reb>ダブリューエイチオー</reb>
-</r_ele>
-<r_ele>
-<reb>ダブリューエッチオー</reb>
-</r_ele>
-<r_ele>
@@ -17,0 +12,9 @@
+<re_inf>&sk;</re_inf>
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
+<reb>ダブリューエイチオー</reb>
+<re_inf>&sk;</re_inf>
+</r_ele>
+<r_ele>
+<reb>ダブリューエッチオー</reb>
+<re_inf>&sk;</re_inf>
2. A 2023-02-16 00:19:14  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
The Kenkyusha JEs all use エイチ; mostly with the nakaguro.
1. A* 2023-02-15 23:05:36  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
エイチ: shinmeikai, meikyo, sankoku
エッチ: koj, obunsha

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jmdict 2857435 Active (id: 2222377)
鰾膠鮸膠
にべ
1. [n] [rare,uk]
▶ gelatinous glue (produced from fish entrails)
▶ isinglass
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1571040 膠【にかわ】 1. gelatinous glue (usu. from animal and fish bones, hide, etc.)
2. [n] [uk]
《usu. as 〜もない or 〜もなく》
▶ amiability
▶ friendliness
▶ graciousness
▶ flattery
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1571050 【にべもない】 1. curt; point-blank



History:
4. A 2023-02-21 01:32:18  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
中辞典 has 鰾膠/にべ as the fish.
3. A* 2023-02-18 02:01:14  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
gg5, daij
  Comments:
GG5 and daijr/s have a second sense.
Given that there's no kanji overlap in most of the refs, I think it's best to keep the entries separate.
  Diff:
@@ -26,0 +27,10 @@
+<sense>
+<pos>&n;</pos>
+<xref type="see" seq="1571050">にべもない</xref>
+<misc>&uk;</misc>
+<s_inf>usu. as 〜もない or 〜もなく</s_inf>
+<gloss>amiability</gloss>
+<gloss>friendliness</gloss>
+<gloss>graciousness</gloss>
+<gloss>flattery</gloss>
+</sense>
2. A* 2023-02-16 01:26:40  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5: ニベ  〔ニベから得るにかわ〕 isinglass; fish glue.
  Comments:
GG5 and several EJs have this as kana-only.  We currently have 鮸/にべ as an entry for the croaker fish, and 中辞典 has the 鰾膠 for that entry too.
Given the kanji form and reading overlap, this probably needs to be merged with 2191590. All rather messy.
  Diff:
@@ -22,0 +23 @@
+<misc>&uk;</misc>
@@ -23,0 +25 @@
+<gloss>isinglass</gloss>
1. A* 2023-02-16 00:35:37  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
鰾膠 and 鮸膠 are in meikyo, obunsha, daijs, etc. with this meaning.

Shinmeikai has this meaning for 鮸, as well as a sense for the fish specifically (our entry 2191590)

I only see 膠 with this reading in jitsuyou in the expression 膠も無い

Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーー─┬─────────╮
│ 鰾膠 │     183 │
│ 鮸膠 │       0 │
│ 鮸  │       0 │
│ 膠  │ 240,033 │
╰─ーー─┴─────────╯

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jmdict 2857436 Active (id: 2222035)
発つ
たつ
1. [v5t,vi]
▶ to depart (on a journey, trip, etc.)
▶ to leave
▶ to set off
▶ to start
Cross references:
  ⇒ see: 1597040 立つ 5. to depart (on a journey, trip, etc.); to leave; to set off; to start

Conjugations


History:
2. A 2023-02-16 21:51:39  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<xref type="see" seq="1597040">立つ・たつ・5</xref>
+<xref type="see" seq="1597040">立つ・5</xref>
1. A 2023-02-16 00:51:26  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
Split from 1597040.

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jmdict 2857437 Active (id: 2222002)
危難失踪
きなんしっそう
1. [n] {law}
▶ disappearance (longer than one year after an accident or disaster)
▶ missing and presumed dead



History:
2. A 2023-02-16 06:28:19  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5: mentions accident too.
  Diff:
@@ -13 +13 @@
-<gloss>disappearance (longer than one year after a disaster)</gloss>
+<gloss>disappearance (longer than one year after an accident or disaster)</gloss>
1. A* 2023-02-16 05:52:50  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
GG5

Google N-gram Corpus Counts
╭─ーーーーーーー─┬─────╮
│ 危難失踪    │ 145 │
│ きなんしっそう │   0 │
╰─ーーーーーーー─┴─────╯

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jmdict 2857438 Active (id: 2222440)
同線
どうせん
1. [n]
▶ the said line
▶ the same line



History:
4. A 2023-02-21 08:30:15  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
同線	35708
同家	12740
同格	72758
同級	105152
同月	441614
同権	22378
同校	247394
同県	230541
  Comments:
We have heaps of these as entries; some are less common than this one. I think this one won't hurt.
3. A* 2023-02-17 12:04:04  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
I'm not sure this is needed. It's just 同+線. It looks like a single word because it's only two characters but it's no different from something like 同条件.
  Diff:
@@ -12,2 +12,2 @@
-<gloss>said line</gloss>
-<gloss>same line</gloss>
+<gloss>the said line</gloss>
+<gloss>the same line</gloss>
2. A 2023-02-17 10:21:22  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-02-16 08:47:05  Nicolas Maia
  Refs:
https://ejje.weblio.jp/content/同線
https://www.brasilnippou.com/2023/230216-15brasil.html
  Comments:
同線	35708

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jmdict 2857439 Active (id: 2222022)
薬が効きすぎる薬が効き過ぎる薬がききすぎる [sK]
くすりがききすぎる
1. [exp,v1] [id]
▶ to work too well (of a punishment, reprimand, etc.)
▶ to be too much (for someone)
▶ to have a stronger effect than intended

Conjugations


History:
3. A 2023-02-16 19:30:02  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
2. A* 2023-02-16 12:32:38  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Diff:
@@ -21,0 +22 @@
+<gloss>to be too much (for someone)</gloss>
1. A* 2023-02-16 12:30:26  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
daijr/s
薬が効きすぎ	4366	78.9%
薬が効き過ぎ	982	17.7%
薬がききすぎ	187	3.4%
gg5: 今日の彼はずいぶんしょげかえっているようだ. 昨日の薬が効きすぎたらしい. He seems very depressed today; I think he took yesterday's telling off too much to heart.
chujiten: おしゃべりをたしなめたところ薬が効きすぎたのか人が変わったように無口になった.  Reprimanding him for chattering worked only too well and now he's so quiet he's like a different person.
prog: 彼には薬が効きすぎた  The shock was too much for him./He took it harder than we expected.

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jmdict 2857440 Active (id: 2222038)
系統だった系統立った
けいとうだった
1. [adj-f]
▶ systematic
▶ methodical
▶ scientific



History:
2. A 2023-02-16 21:58:49  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
1. A* 2023-02-16 21:44:04  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
RP, eij, reverso
系統立った	1688	14.1%
系統だった	10291	85.9%
系統だった知識	241	86.7%
系統立った知識	37	13.3%
  Comments:
Used in a Tanaka sentence.

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jmdict 2857441 Deleted (id: 2222108)
椎拙
ついせつ
1. [n] [rare]
▶ simplicity
▶ childishness



History:
3. D 2023-02-17 13:43:37  Robin Scott <...address hidden...>
  Comments:
The provided reference is a kanwa dictionary, which is unsuitable as the sole reference for a submission. I'm not seeing a case for adding this.
2. A* 2023-02-17 10:42:18  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
  Refs:
椎拙	31
https://detail.chiebukuro.yahoo.co.jp/qa/question_detail/q11104120571
  Comments:
Maybe this. With it not in the kokugos I think it's rather doubtful.
  Diff:
@@ -12 +12,3 @@
-<gloss>???</gloss>
+<misc>&rare;</misc>
+<gloss>simplicity</gloss>
+<gloss>childishness</gloss>
1. A* 2023-02-16 23:14:53 
  Refs:
https://kotobank.jp/word/椎拙-2848898

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