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付け焼刃付け焼き刃付焼刃 [sK] 付焼き刃 [sK]
1. [n,adj-no]
▶ affectation
▶ pretension
▶ thin veneer
▶ hasty preparation
▶ stopgap (measure)
▶ superficial (polish, knowledge)
2. [n]
《orig. meaning》
▶ blunt sword with a tempered steel edge

10. A 2023-04-21 23:47:47  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
GG5, 中辞典, etc.
I think the glosses Paul dropped in 2012 were actually OK.
The Kokugos are a bit all over the place for sense 2. I'm going with the short historical one in Koj and Nikk.
@@ -23,0 +24,2 @@
@@ -27,2 +29 @@
-<gloss>superficial (e.g. knowledge)</gloss>
-<gloss>knowledge or skill learned as a stopgap (e.g. from cramming)</gloss>
+<gloss>superficial (polish, knowledge)</gloss>
@@ -33 +34 @@
-<gloss>a tempered steel blade affixed to a dull or chipped sword ( which may serve in an emergency, but will quickly fail )</gloss>
+<gloss>blunt sword with a tempered steel edge</gloss>
9. A* 2023-04-16 19:49:13  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
On the video game replacement...

I misinterpreted.  Only the *joysticks* on the sides of the gaming devices were broken. as a 付け焼刃, he affixed new joysticks(the actual console in both images is the same). perfect.
8. A* 2023-04-16 19:44:40  Brian Krznarich <...address hidden...>
Note the two synonyms in particular: 「その場しのぎ」「一夜漬け
【類語】	「にわか仕込み」「その場しのぎ」「一夜漬け」「生かじり」「生半可」「素人知恵」
【英訳】	「veneer」「surface」「stopgap」「pretention」付け焼き刃
小学館 和西辞典の解説
付け焼き刃の知識|conocimiento m. superficial, barniz m. de conocimiento (superficial knowledge)

ngrams (superficial knowledge)
付け焼き刃の知識	1007
付け焼き刃の勉強	309	  
付け焼き刃の環境知識	284	  
付け焼き刃の練習	118	  
付け焼き刃の人材不足対策	100	  
付け焼き刃のトレーニング	70	  

1 切れない刀にはがねの焼き刃をつけ足したもの。見た目は切れそうに見えるが、実際はもろくて切れない。
^^^ It's not the dull sword.  It *is* the attached blade. (which is why it can peel off)
(なまくらの刀にほんとうの鋼の刃を継ぎ足したのが、付け焼き刃であり、にわか仕込みの知識などのたとえ) その場しのぎに身につけた知識や学問は、一時は切り抜けられるが、すぐにぼろを出すことをいう。

Another writeup noting the temporary effectiveness (of cramming, for example)...五十音インデックス/つ/付け焼き刃は剥げやすいとは何か/
I'm sure the glosses will need more massaging.

I don't know a lot about swords, but I don't think that tempering makes them look any sharper... (so I looked into this)

daijs: 切れない刀にはがねの焼き刃をつけ足したもの

kokugos explain that a *separate* sharpened steel blade is attached to a dull and/or chipped sword as an emergency measure (and not, as I had surmised from the old gloss, as some sort of sneaky fraud).  The 付け焼刃 is the accessory blade (はがねの焼け刃), not the sword at all. The cheap steel does not have the ruggedness of the original blade, and while it may work for a short bit in battle, it will dull and/or fail(peel off entirely) in short order.

Not so much that the stop-gap is completely ineffective, more-so that its limited effect is short-lived. See the very good imidas description, for example:

See these related kotowaza (might be worth adding the first one):
A tukeyakiba is easily pealed (off)  (this expression confirms the kokukos that explain that an additional steel blade has been attached)
付け焼き刃は剥げやすい plenty on twitter (付け焼き刃は剥げ易い) (a few on twitter with 易い)
A tukeyakiba is easily dulled
付け焼き刃はなまり易い つけやきばはなまりやすい (on twitter, less common than the other expression)

Internet suggests some overlap between this term and 一夜漬け. (I would say that 付け焼刃 is the result of 一夜漬け )。In fact, check out this grouped gloss:
付け焼き刃/一夜漬け の解説 - 小学館 類語例解辞典
英語表現 overnight knowledge

Good, recent twitter example on TOEIC prep (english exam) "付け焼刃の対策では全然ダメでした"
先日のTOEIC 結果発表

With pictures.  Owner of a dead video game console buys a garrish neon replacement as a stopgap, but comes to like it:
@@ -22,0 +23 @@
@@ -25 +26,3 @@
-<gloss>knowledge or skill learned as a stopgap</gloss>
+<gloss>stopgap (measure)</gloss>
+<gloss>superficial (e.g. knowledge)</gloss>
+<gloss>knowledge or skill learned as a stopgap (e.g. from cramming)</gloss>
@@ -30 +33 @@
-<gloss>re-tempering a dull sword (so that it looks as if it's sharp, but is actually unusable)</gloss>
+<gloss>a tempered steel blade affixed to a dull or chipped sword ( which may serve in an emergency, but will quickly fail )</gloss>
7. A 2022-08-21 08:00:32  Jim Breen <...address hidden...>
6. A* 2022-08-20 20:07:24  Stephen Kraus <...address hidden...>
Google N-gram Corpus Counts
│ 付け焼刃  │ 39,677 │ 60.9% │ 🡠    (oukoku, jitsuyou)
│ 付け焼き刃 │ 23,354 │ 35.9% │ 🡠    (daijr/s, shinmeikai, meikyo, oukoku, iwakoku, gg5)
│ 付焼刃   │    958 │  1.5% │ 🡠 sK (koj)
│ 付焼き刃  │    244 │  0.4% │ 🡠 sK
│ つけやきば │    901 │  1.4% │
@@ -11 +11,2 @@
@@ -14 +15,2 @@
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